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Conflict Weekly #79, 14 July 2021, Vol.2, No.15
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IPRI # 184, 14 July 2021

Conflict Weekly
Anti-government protests in Cuba, Pro-Zuma protests in South Africa, and remembering the Srebrenica massacre

  IPRI Team

 Lokendra Sharma, Anu Maria Joseph and Harini Madhusudan



Cuba: Anti-government protests, triggered by COVID economy and structural issues 
In the news
On 11 July, thousands of Cubans marched in Havana and Santiago against the communist government led by President Diaz-Canel. The protestors called on Diaz-Canel to step down and also chanted "freedom." Protests were largely peaceful, with some instances of violence and police detentions. On the same day, in a broadcasted address, Diaz-Canel asked: "all the revolutionaries in the country, all the Communists, to hit the streets wherever there is an effort to produce these provocations." Further, the Cuban government blamed the US for fomenting protests in the country.

On 12 July, US President Biden made a statement backing the protestors. He said: "The Cuban people are demanding their freedom from an authoritarian regime." He added that the US "stands firmly with the people of Cuba as they assert their universal rights" and also called on the Cuban government "to refrain from violence in their attempt to silence the voices of the people of Cuba." On the same day, Mexico and Russia issued statements warning against any outside interference in the internal affairs of Cuba, indirectly targeting the role of the US. 

On 13 July, a Reuters report, citing an exiled human rights group Cubalex, said: "At least 100 protesters, activists, and independent journalists had been detained nationwide since Sunday."

Issues at large
First, the demands by protestors. The protests come in the backdrop of the rising cases of COVID-19 and a shrinking economy particularly affected by the declining tourism sector. Protestors are demanding an end to hunger, better economic opportunities, and a more reliable electricity supply. People are also unhappy with the government's handling of the pandemic and medicine shortages. 

Second, a new leader and a new generation. The protests are the largest in nearly three decades; the last such protest took place in 1994 when the country was reeling under severe economic distress after Soviet Union's collapse. The leadership was recently passed on to Diaz-Canel from the Castro brothers — Fidel and Raul — who ruled for nearly six decades. These protests are the first test of Diaz-Canel's leadership. It will be much more challenging for him because of three reasons: widespread use of the Internet and social media platforms by the country's disillusioned youth which render propaganda ineffective; Diaz-Canel lacking the charisma and popular appeal which Castro brothers enjoyed; lastly, though importantly, the receding of revolutionary ideology with a generational shift.     

Third, the economic issues. Cuba has been subjected to a severe economic embargo by the US for the last six decades. Former US President Trump had imposed even more sanctions amidst the pandemic and reinstated some sanctions which were earlier lifted by the Obama administration. In part due to the US embargo, along with other factors like the pandemic and domestic policy issues, the Cuban economy shrank by 11 per cent in 2020.    
 
In perspective 
Due to the three-fold challenges of social media and lack of charisma and receding ideology, Diaz-Canel would only find it difficult to respond in a heavy-handed, repressive manner similar to what the Castro brothers did in the past. Therefore, rather than calling for counter-revolutionaries to mount a resistance, Diaz-Canel should pay heed to genuine demands for change and reform, of both political and economic nature. Failure to do so would only keep the Cuban society perpetually at the edge. 

While the US has certainly played an interventionist role historically not just in Cuba but in the wider Caribbean and Latin American region, Diaz-Canel's attempts of putting all blame on the US for fomenting the protests is unhelpful. The US, on its part, should move beyond its hypocritical rhetoric and end the most enduring and inhuman embargo on Cuba.



South Africa: Arrest of Jacob Zuma triggers violence across the country
In the news
On 11 July, President Cyril Ramaphosa called on the protesters to calm down, saying "there can never be any justification for such violent destruction and disruptive actions." Meanwhile, military troops have been deployed in Gauteng province and in Zuma's home province of KwaZulu-Natal to tackle the violence.

On 13 July, the Washington Post reported widespread violence and looting. It reported more than 70 people getting killed and widespread looting across South Africa.

On 7 July, South Africa's former president Jacob Zuma handed himself to the police. He is due to serve his 15 months sentence for contempt of court as he failed to attend the enquiry on corruption charges during his presidency. Protests following the arrest are degenerating to larger violence in the country. At least 26 people have been killed and about 800 arrested. 
 
Issues at large
First, arrest and the allegations.  Jacob Zuma was forced out of his office by his own party, the African National Congress, in 2018 over corruption allegations. He has been accused of 18 charges of racketeering, corruption, fraud, tax evasion and money laundering. The charges also include the corruption over a multi-billion-dollar arms deal in 1999 and the state capture in 2017. On 26 May, he pleaded not guilty of all the charges saying he is a victim of conspiracies involving his enemies in the African National Congress.
 
Second, the divisions within the ANC. The party today is divided into two factions, one supporting Zuma and the other supporting Ramaphosa. The Zuma faction claims that Ramaphosa is using the court to maintain his leadership in the party. They argue that Zuma is a victim of political witch-hunting by Ramaphosa's allies.  
 
Third, the spread of violence. The ongoing unrest in the country began as a protest against Zuma's arrest but has now broadened to larger violence. Shops and malls have been ransacked, businesses set on fire and major highways blocked. The police say that the criminals and the opportunistic individuals are trying to enrich themselves under the situation. South Africa's consumer goods council warned that the unrest might lead to food shortages as deliveries have been disrupted, banking services and healthcare have also been impacted. 
 
In perspective
First, the arrest of Zuma can be seen as a great achievement of the South African judiciary. It proved the accountability of the court in bringing equality before the law. 
 
Second, but the split within ANC will be a great challenge for the party in regaining the public trust. The victims of the split will be the citizens as the governing party loses its balance. People are insecure with the government under the party in addressing their needs and issues.  
 
Third, the pro-Zuma protests have crossed the line to larger violence. The multiple disturbances, triggered by poor economic conditions and the pandemic, may lead to larger unrest, poverty, unemployment and an increase in deaths.



Bosnia: 26 years after the Srebrenica Massacre 
In the news
On 11 July, the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina gathered in thousands to commemorate the 1995 Srebrenica massacre; the day the killing began. They also reburied 19 newly identified victims whose remains were found in mass graves and recently identified through DNA analysis. The massacre is known as the only acknowledged genocide since World War II; 26 years after the genocide, only a handful of the officials and the military officers have been brought to justice, for the organized killing, burial, and cover-up operation. An estimated 20,000 people were involved in the gruesome massacre of up to 8000 Muslim Bosniaks from Srebrenica. 
 
On the eve of the anniversary, Milord Dodik, the Serb member of Bosnia's presidency, denied that what happened in Srebrenica was genocide and stated to a newspaper that the mourners are "burying empty coffins."
 
Issues at large 
First, a brief history of the massacre. The Srebrenica Massacre took place on the sidelines of the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia that followed the disintegration of Yugoslavia. They were unleashed by the territorial ambitions and nationalistic passions that set the Bosnian Serbs against the Croats and Bosniaks, the two other ethnic factions. During these years, Bosnia and Herzegovina were under attack by the Serbian and Croatian forces, who were each trying to carve a Greater Serbia or a Greater Croatia. An estimated 100,00 people were killed during this war. The Serbian forces were attacking villages, towns, and cities in Bosnia with an aim to "ethnically cleanse." At the time, under the protection of the UN and NATO forces, the Muslim town in Eastern Bosnia, Srebrenica, had been classified as a safe zone for non-Serbs. 
 
On 11 July 1995, the Bosnian Serb army overruns Srebrenica which caused tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the Dutch forces' compound. Mladic, who led the Bosnian Serb army, ordered the evacuation of all elderly, women, and children civilians, and all the men of fighting age were taken as prisoners. In the days following this, more than 8000 Muslim men and boys were systematically butchered by these forces and dumped the bodies in mass graves. In order to try and erase the evidence, the forces with the help of a few civilian companies dug them and reburied them in other locations. By 17 July, witness accounts emerged of harrowing accounts of murder, rape, and torture. 
 
Second, the regional and global responses. The international response led to the Bosnian Serb political leader being indicted on 24 July, and the military chief Ratko Mladic on 16 November by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. However, over the years, only a handful of the perpetrators have been indicted for the various roles they have played in the massacre. A total of 48 individuals have been sentenced in the past 26 years, and four have been given life sentences. In 2003, Bosnia and Herzegovina conducted their own set of investigations and came up with a list of names of those who played a part in the crimes in and around Srebrenica, but to date, even the direct perpetrators captured from 1995 are yet to be indicted. Additionally, even though the massacre has been declared a genocide by international and national courts, but Serb leaders in Bosnia and neighbouring Serbia continue to downplay or even deny the evidence of what happened.  Two days before the 26th anniversary, a Srebrenica Genocide Denial report was published, which identified at least 234 instances of genocide denial in regional public discourse and the media in the past year. On the same day, the Bosnian media reported the celebrations of the Serbian War in the backyard of a Church right above the memorial centre, with provocative music. 
 
Third, justice and reconciliation. International Tribunals were set up to bring to legal liability the perpetrators of the genocide. The Bosnian government in 2003 issued a public apology over the incident, and in 2019, the Dutch supreme court also upheld partial liability of the Netherlands to the deaths caused under their watch. Legal and symbolic justice have been offered at various stages through the past 26 years. Attempts have been made to engage with the survivors and make a record of their experiences to deal with the denialism and the revision of history. However, delayed justice, outright political denial, and the sheer depth of the loss from the massacre remain haunting. 

Fourth, the counternarrative of historical denialism: two popular narratives from the Serbian side remain. One group believe that there were killings but state that the fatalities have been overstated and deny the role of Serbia supporting the Bosnian Serb regime. Another set of people believe the genocide never happened. The issue of Srebrenica never resonated in the Serbian society, and those that call the Srebrenica genocide in Serbia face condemnation and lawsuits. 
 
In perspective
The parallels of denialism and the slow pace of bringing the perpetrators to justice remain a glaring reality of the massacre. This could be a reflection of the popular sentiments among Eastern European leaders against the Muslims in the region. The responses to the genocide have largely been legal or symbolic; it would be useful to see if a humanized approach to dealing with the delayed justice and losses would be helpful to the families that lost their loved ones. A large part of the narrative and the denial of the genocide is used as a divisive element in the Bosnian and Serbian societies, which are counterproductive to the creation of a safe environment for communities to co-exist.



Also from around the World 
By Apoorva Sudhakar and Abigail Miriam Fernandez
 
Peace and Conflict from East and Southeast Asia
China: 2600 plus children rescued under Reunion system, says Ministry of Public Security
On 13 July, the Ministry of Public Security said that 2,609 missing or abducted children had been rescued since 2016 under the Tuanyuan (Reunion) system; some of the rescued had been missing for over 60 years. A Deputy Inspector of the Ministry's Criminal Investigation Bureau said that on 1 June, almost 10,000 people gave their blood samples at blood sampling sites for the Tuanyan; following this, 306 families reunited with their missing children. 
 
China: Beijing removes giant pandas from the endangered species list
On 9 July, The Guardian reported that China had reclassified giant pandas by removing them from the endangered category to the vulnerable group. The head of the Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation under the Environment Ministry attributed this improvement to better living conditions "and China's efforts in keeping their habitats integrated." He said that apart from giant pandas whose population stands at 1,800 outside captivity, the number of Asian elephants, Siberian tigers, Amur leopards, and crested ibis had increased due to the conservation measures. The development comes five years after the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) had reclassified the giant pandas from endangered to vulnerable; but at the time, Beijing rejected the move on the grounds that "it was misleading and would cause complacency in China."
 
South China Sea: The US reaffirms commitment to defend the Philippines; China calls it irresponsible
On 11 July, the US Secretary of State called on China to "abide by its obligations under international law (and) cease its provocative behaviour in the South China Sea," and reiterated the US commitment to defend the Philippines. He was marking the fifth anniversary of a 2016 ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague, which rejected China's expansive moves in the South China Sea. CNN quoted Antony Blinken: "We also reaffirm that an armed attack on Philippine armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft in the South China Sea would invoke US mutual defence commitments under Article IV of the 1951 US-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty." On the same day, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman termed Blinken's statements extremely irresponsible and said that China does not recognize the arbitration. 
 
Japan: Increasing military tensions around Taiwan threatens peace in East Asia, say white papers
On 13 July, the government approved the "Defense of Japan 2021" white papers which stated that increasing military tensions near Taiwan, along with the US-China rivalry, was a threat to East Asia's peace and stability. Al Jazeera quoted from the report: "Therefore, it is necessary that we pay close attention to the situation with a sense of crisis more than ever before." This is the latest development wherein Japan has outrightly supported Taiwan and garnered criticism from China for the same. The white papers also mentioned that China's military activities in the South China Sea and the US criticism against it were also an area of concern. 
 
North Korea: Pyongyang criticizes US humanitarian aid 
On 12 July, The Asahi Shimbun published a Reuters news report which said that the North Korean Foreign Ministry, on its website, had criticized the US humanitarian aid on 11 July. Further, a North Korean researcher from the Association for the Promotion of International Economic and Technological Exchange termed US aid as a "sinister political scheme" to pressurize other countries and listed the US withdrawal from Afghanistan as an example. He said: "This vividly reveals that the American ulterior intention of linking 'humanitarian assistance' with 'human rights issue' is to legitimize their pressure on the sovereign states and achieve their sinister political scheme," adding, "In actual practice, many countries have undergone bitter tastes as a result of pinning much hope on the American 'aid' and 'humanitarian assistance." 
 
Myanmar: Suu Kyi slapped with four more charges; UN adopts resolution against rights violations
On 12 July, Aung San Suu Kyi's lawyer said that the military junta had slapped four additional charges on her; the charges are related to corruption. Al Jazeera quoted the lawyer: "There are corruption charges. We do not know why do they sue? Or for what reasons? We will find out about it." Meanwhile, the military spokesman said that Suu Kyi had violated the Constitution when the post of the state counsellor was established, which allegedly disrupted the command structure between the president and vice presidents. Previously, on 12 July, UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution condemning the rights violations in the country and called for ceasing the hostilities. The UN estimates that since the February coup, at least 900 people have been killed.
 
Peace and Conflict from South Asia
India: J&K delimitation to be based on 2011 census
On 9 July, the Delimitation Commission stated that delimitation in Jammu and Kashmir would be conducted based on the 2011 Census. Additionally, the final draft would be prepared after taking into consideration all demands and recommendations. The Chief Election Commissioner of India said: "The first full-fledged delimitation commission was formed in 1981 which could submit its recommendation after 14 years in 1995. It was based on the 1981 census. Thereafter, no delimitation has taken place." This visit comes after the panel held a meeting at the Election Commission office in the national capital on 30 June. The purpose of the visit was to get inputs on the conduct of the exercise to carve out new constituencies in Jammu and Kashmir.
 
Maldives: "India Out" campaign spreads, High Commission seeks government action and greater security
On 13 July, The Indian Express reported that the Indian High Commission in the Maldives has written to the government in the Maldives seeking action and greater security following what it calls "recurring articles and social media posts attacking the dignity of the High Commission" and diplomats posted in the country. The "India Out" campaign which began in 2020, has now spread across social media platforms. In response, the Foreign Ministry of the Maldives called on local media outlets not to spread stories that would damage the reputation of foreign diplomats and put them at a security risk.
 
Nepal: Supreme Court overturn Oli's dissolution of the House of Representatives
On 12 July, a five-member Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court reinstated the dissolved House of Representatives for the second time in five months and ordered the appointment of Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister. Following the verdict, Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli said: "I have not been ousted because of people's mandate but because of the court. I have people's mandate, trust. The Supreme Court's decision has pushed away from the democracy. It has challenged the multi-party system of the country." He said that Supreme Court has "crossed its jurisdiction and interfered in political matter" and accused the court of "deliberately" passing the verdict in favour of the Opposition parties. On 13 July, Deuba took oath as prime minister for the fifth time.
 
Pakistan: PM Khan meets with Baloch lawmakers; calls for creating an atmosphere for talks
On 9 July, Prime Minister Imran Khan met with Balochistan's lawmakers, including Sarfaraz Bugti and Anwarul Haq Kakar. During the meeting, he asked them to prepare a conducive atmosphere for the federal government to engage with insurgents. A statement from the PM office said that senators apprised the PM about the political situation in Balochistan. Additionally, during his visit to Gwadar, he stated that he was considering "talking to insurgents" in Balochistan, arguing that the government would never have had to worry about insurgency if attention had been paid to its development in the past.
 
Afghanistan: Taliban says they control 85 per cent of Afghan territory
On 9 July, the Taliban claimed that they are in control of 85 per cent of Afghanistan; however, government officials dismissed the claims stating that it was a propaganda campaign launched as foreign military troops withdraw from the country. Meanwhile, on 8 July, President Joe Biden said the US military mission in Afghanistan will conclude on 31 August, reiterating that the US seeks to end the nearly 20-year war. As the US troops withdraw, Marine General Kenneth F. McKenzie took charge of the remaining US forces in Afghanistan, and the command of the forces was handed to him from General Austin Miller who served in the post since 2018.
 
Afghanistan: Important steps to be taken in the peace talks within the next few days, says Abdullah Abdullah
On 13 July, Abdullah Abdullah, the head of the High Council for National Reconciliation, and Hamid Karzai, former president, stated that they expect important steps to be taken in the 'peace talks' soon. Meanwhile, delegations from the Afghan government and the Taliban have said to have held a series of talks focused on at least five key issues, including a future constitution, ceasefire, political roadmap and political participation in the transition period. Meanwhile, Zalmay Khalilzad, the US Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation who has started a new series of trips to the region said that he was surprised by recent advances by the Taliban, reiterating that a military takeover was not the solution to the conflict in Afghanistan.
 
Afghanistan: UK withdrawals troops, senior British military official warns of civil war
On 8 July, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced that most of the British troops had left Afghanistan. Although the combat operations had ended in 2014, around 750 British service personnel stayed in Afghanistan under NATO's mission to train and assist the security forces. Meanwhile, Britain's Chief of the Defense Staff, Nick Carter, said it was "plausible" that the country's state would collapse without international forces there, adding that Afghanistan could see a situation like the country's 1990s civil war "where you would see a culture of warlordism and you might see some of the important institutions like security forces fracturing along ethnic, or for that matter, tribal lines." He said: "if that were to happen, I guess the Taliban would control part of the country. But, of course, they would not control all of the country."
 
Peace and Conflict from Central Asia, Middle East and Africa
Iraq: As temperatures soar, protesters demand restorating electricity 
On 9 July, hundreds of people protested outside a government-run power plant demanding restoration of electricity as temperatures in southern provinces were recorded at nearly 50 degrees Celsius for several days together. Arab News quoted a protester: "We are peaceful protesters who are here only for our rights. Our demand is for electricity to return and if it doesn't we'll bring our tents and camp out." Meanwhile, the Electricity Ministry said the blackouts were taking place because of "unexplained attacks on power lines."

Israel-Palestine: Israeli forces open fire at Palestinian demonstrators in occupied West Bank 
On 9 July, over 370 Palestinian demonstrators were wounded and 31 hit by live ammunition after Israeli forces opened fire on the protesters in occupied West Bank. The demonstrators were protesting against "illegal land confiscation." Al Jazeera referred to local media reports which said the protesters had burned tyres and hurled rocks at Israeli forces. Similar incidents took place in Kafr Qaddum and Beit Dajan towns.

Ethiopia: Tigrayan forces secured important towns in southern Tigray, says spokesman
On 13 July, Getachew Reda, a spokesman for Tigrayan forces told AFP that they had seized Almata town in southern Tigray after they launched an offensive on 12 July. Voice of America quoted Reda: "Yesterday, we launched an offensive in the Raya region (southern Tigray), and we managed to rout the divisions of the Federal Defense Forces and the Amhara forces." Further, he said the Tigrayan forces had successfully secured the majority of southern Tigray. Meanwhile, on 13 July, the UN Human Rights Council called for "an immediate halt to all human rights violations and abuses and violations of international humanitarian law" in Tigray, in line with a EU-backed resolution, and called for the withdrawal of Eritrean troops from the region. Eritrea criticized the resolution maintaining that the troops had already left and Ethiopia rejected the resolution; however, Addis Ababa has agreed to cooperate on an investigation carried out on directions of the UN human rights chief.

Ivory Coast: Former presidents unite to oppose current head of state 
On 11 July, former presidents Laurent Gbagbo and Henri Konan Bédié announced that they were uniting to oppose the current president Allasane Ouattara. News24 quoted from a joint statement which said they were uniting because there was an "urgent need to work for a return to a definitive and durable peace in Ivory Coast." The development comes after Gbagbo returned on 17 June following acquittal from charges of crimes against humanity; Gbagbo's refusal to cede power after the 2010 elections had resulted in electoral violence which claimed nearly 3,000 lives. 

Niger: 49, including gunmen killed in clashes in Tillaberi region
On 11 July, the Ministry of Defense said that 49 people - four soldiers, five civilians, and 40 armed attackers - had been killed in a clash in the Tchoma Bangou village in the Tillaberi region located at the border between Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso. The government did not identify the perpetrators but said around 100 heavily armed "terrorists" had struck the village. In January, gunmen had killed around 70 civilians   

South Sudan: Kiir and Machar mark 10 years of independence with the hope to keep peace alive
On 9 July, South Sudan marked ten years of independence; President Salva Kiir said: "I assure you that I will not return you back to war again. Let us work all together to recover the lost decade and put our country back to the path of development in this new decade." However, he outlined that the country was not in a position to celebrate the occasion and blamed international sanctions for the same. With this, he said that the transitional government was aiming at improving the economic conditions. Meanwhile, Kiir's former rival and now Vice President Riek Machar said: "Our people expect a lot from us. The world is also expecting a lot from us...For us to continue (independence) celebrations every time, we need to keep the peace alive."

West and Central Africa: UNICEF chief calls for protection of children in the region
On 7 July, the UNICEF Executive Director raised concerns over the safety and wellbeing of children in parts of West and Central Africa due to the presence of non-State armed groups. The UNICEF chief, highlighting that the instances of abductions were on the rise, said that it is not only necessary to condemn the activities but also take necessary action. She said: "This starts with non-State armed groups and all parties to conflict who are committing violations of children's rights – they have a moral and legal obligation to immediately cease attacks against civilians, and to respect and protect civilians and civilian objects during any military operations."

The GERD: Taking the matter to UNSC unhelpful, Ethiopia tells Egypt and Sudan
On 13 July, the Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs called on Egypt and Sudan to return of African Union-led negotiations on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam maintaining that the dam talks have been dragged and politicized. Addis Standard quoted from the Ministry statement: "Ethiopia has made its position clear time and again that this is unproductive and bringing the subject matter to the United Nations Security Council was and is unhelpful…" The development comes after the UNSC held an open session on the dam on 8 July. 
 
Peace and Conflict from Europe and the Americas
Greece: EU officials accuse Greek government of 'pushing back' asylum seekers at sea
On 13 July, BBC reported that EU Commissioner for Home Affairs stated that the Greek government must stop the illegal deportation of migrants arriving on the country's borders. The official said that the "very well-founded" reports of "pushbacks" at sea and on land were "violations of fundamental European values." Previously, Human Rights groups blamed Greece for pushing back asylum seekers in Europe to Turkey before being given a chance to apply for asylum. However, Greece has once again denied the allegations.
 
Spain: Heatwave hits country as temperatures reach 44 degrees Celsius
On 11 July, a heatwave engulfed most of Spain, driving temperatures to extreme levels. The National weather office AEMET issued heat warnings for most of the country, forecasting the temperature to rise above 40 degrees Celsius in Madrid and the southern city of Seville. Additionally, the heatwave is forecasted to spread east, with only a part of Spain's northern Atlantic coast said to be spared from the extreme heat.
 
Belarus: Lithuania, EU accuse Belarus of using refugees as 'political weapon'
On 12 July, the EU and Lithuania accused Belarus of using illegal migrants as a political weapon to put pressure on the bloc due to its sanctions on Minsk. During a meeting of EU foreign ministers, a Lithuanian politician said that Belarus was flying in migrants from abroad and sending them over the border into EU countries. Additionally, Josep Borrell, the EU's foreign policy chief, said: "To use migrants as a weapon, pushing people against the borders, is unacceptable."
 
Italy: G20 recognized carbon pricing as a potential tool to address climate change
On 10 July, G20 finance leaders endorsed carbon pricing, a once contentious idea, as a potential tool to address climate change for the first time in an official communique. The initiative is seen as a step towards promoting the idea and coordinating carbon reduction policies. The communique, issued after the meeting stated: "Tackling climate change and biodiversity loss and promoting environmental protection remain urgent priorities," adding that the solutions could include, "if appropriate, the use of carbon pricing mechanisms and incentives."
 
Italy: World hunger increased in 2020 under the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, says FAO
On 12 July, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the UN World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) published a joint report titled 'The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021.' The report stated that world hunger increased in 2020 under the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic and projected that between 720 and 811 million people in the world faced hunger in 2020. The report states that more than half of the world's undernourished are found in Asia (418 million) and more than one-third in Africa (282 million). Additionally, it states that new projections confirm that hunger will not be eradicated by 2030 unless bold actions are taken to accelerate progress, especially actions to address inequality in access to food.
 
The UK: Racist abuse directed at the Black players after Euro Cup 2020 loss
On 11 July, after Italy beat England on penalties in the Euro 2020, reports of racist abuse being directed at the Black players poured in on social media. In a statement, England's Football Association (FA) said: "The FA strongly condemns all forms of discrimination and is appalled by the online racism that has been aimed at some of our England players on social media." Meanwhile, Prime Minister Boris Johnson condemned the actions saying: "those responsible for this appalling abuse should be ashamed of themselves." Additionally, Prince William who is also the president of the Football Association, said that he was "sickened" by the racism, adding, "it is totally unacceptable that players have to endure this abhorrent behaviour…It must stop now and all those involved should be held accountable."
 
Mexico: Over 100 journalists and activists killed since 2018
On 12 July, figures released by the Interior Department showed that at least 68 human rights activists and 43 journalists had been killed since President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador came to office in late 2018. These numbers have drawn criticism over the government promise to safeguard the lives of journalists and activists in Mexico. Currently, the Mexican government is providing security and protection for 1478 people throughout the country. Further, President Lopez Obrador stated that his government is "working every day to save lives" as part of the desire for "justice and protection of the Mexicansꞌ lives."
 
Venezuela: Maduro says Mexico to host talks with opposition
On 12 July, President Nicolas Maduro announced that Mexico will host talks between the government and the opposition, however, making clear that he will only take part if international sanctions are lifted and he is protected from any plots to oust him. Meanwhile, opposition politician Freddy Guevara has been charged with terrorism and treason, on the grounds of alleged "ties with extremist groups and paramilitaries associated with the Colombian government." On the same day, the US announced that it would begin easing the sanction imposed by the Trump administration on Venezuela allowing companies to export propane to the country.
 
The US: Statues of two Confederate Generals removed in Charlottesville
On 10 July, the statue of US Confederate General Robert E Lee and Stonewall Jackson was removed in Charlottesville, Virginia. The removal of the statues, which have been at the centre of the white supremacist rally, comes nearly four years after violence erupted at the infamous "Unite the Right" rally in 2017. Charlottesville mayor said: "Taking down this statue is one small step closer to the goal of helping Charlottesville, Virginia, and America, grapple with the sin of being willing to destroy black people for economic gain."
 
The US: California wildfires increases as temperature soar to 54 degrees Celsius
On 12 July, wildfires continued to destroy the northern forests of California as scorching heat and severe drought are creating ideal conditions for fires. Meanwhile, a unique kind of large storm cloud has been forming in the skies above, dubbed "fire clouds," firefighters and scientists have warned that these clouds can produce hurricanes and lightning, which can generate even more fires. Additionally, as the fire spreads, extreme temperatures continue to blast the west, with excessive heat warnings remaining in many places.



About the authors
Lokendra Sharma and Harini Madhusudan are PhD Scholars; Apoorva Sudhakar and Abigail Miriam Fernandez are Research Associates at the School of Conflict and Security Studies in NIAS. Anu Maria Joseph is a Research Intern at the Global Politics Course, NIAS, currently a postgraduate scholar at the Department of Political Science, Madras Christian College, Chennai.

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 242
IPRI Briefs

Dr Sandip Kumar Mishra

State of Peace and Conflict in East Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 241
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anand V

State of Peace and Conflict in China in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 240
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Top 15 Conflicts in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 239
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New reports on the Omicron threat, and lifting sanctions on humanitarian aid to Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 238
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

West warns Russia over Ukrainian aggression and South Korea and North Korean agree on end-of-war declaration in principle

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NIAS Africa Monitor
December 2021 | IPRI # 237
IPRI Comments

Harshita Rathore

Famine in Ethiopia: The government's refusal to acknowledge, worsens the crisis

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 236
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict Weekly: 100th Issue

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 235
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest in the Solomon Islands, and the 12 million missing children in China

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 234
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-lockdown protests in Europe, Farmers' protests in India, and Continuing instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 223
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Europe's other migrant crisis, and Protests in Cuba and Thailand

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 222
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The migrant threat to Europe from Belarus and Ceasefire with the TTP in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 221
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of Ethiopian conflict and UK-France fishing row

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 220
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Sudan, Pressure on Myanmar's military regime, and the Migrant game by Belarus

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October 2021 | IPRI # 219
IPRI Comments

Vandana Mishra

The Texas abortion law: Five reasons why it is draconian

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 218
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

No honour in honour killing

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 217
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year after Samuel Paty's killing, Kidnapping in Haiti, and Instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 216
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

ISIS violence in Afghanistan, and Targeted killings in J&K

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 215
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Rising child abuse in Pakistan: Five reasons why

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 214
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Hazara Persecution in Pakistan: No end in sight

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 213
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Talking to the Pakistani Taliban: What did Imran say? And what does it mean? Is the rest of Pakistan ready for the same?

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 212
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Protests in Gwadar: Who and Why

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 211
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Bolsonaro protests in Brazil, UK-France fishing row, Talks with the TTP in Pakistan, and the anti-abortion law protests in the US

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 210
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Chinese White Paper on Xinjiang, and the Haitian migrant crisis in the US

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
September 2021 | IPRI # 209
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s Stolen Future:Child abductions, lost innocence, and a glaring reflection of State failure in Nigeria

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Afghanistan
September 2021 | IPRI # 208
IPRI Comments

Vineeth Daniel Vinoy

Who is who in the interim Taliban government? And, what would be the government structure?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 207
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Pride marches in Europe, Jail term for Hotel Rwanda hero, and continuing Houthi-led violence in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 206
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests in Europe and Brazil, and an impending humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan

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Latin America
September 2021 | IPRI # 205
IPRI Comments

Lokendra Sharma

Two months of Cuban protests: Is the ‘revolution’ ending?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 204
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Texas' abortion ban, Return of the Thai protests, the Taliban government, and the Guinea coup

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 203
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US exit from Afghanistan, the Houthi violence in Yemen, and Hurricane Ida in the US

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 202
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Chaotic evacuation in Kabul, Crimea Summit on seven years of Russian occupation, anti-lockdown protests in Australia, and continuing kidnappings in Africa

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 201
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Return of the Taliban and the fall of Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 200
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests return to Thailand, Taliban gains in Afghanistan, Pandemic action triggers protests in Europe, and new Climate Change report warns Code-Red

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 199
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive, New Zealand's apology over the Pacific communities, Peru's new problem, and an inter-State clash in India's Northeast

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 198
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

France's anti-extremism bill, Canada's burning churches, and Tunisia's new political crisis

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 197
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Impending famine in Tigray, should make Ethiopia everyone's problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 196
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Too late and too little is Ethiopia's international problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 195
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

Africa's Ethiopia Problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 194
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia's Tigray problem is Tigray's Ethiopia problem

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Afghanistan
July 2021 | IPRI # 193
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Five reasons why Afghanistan is closer to a civil war

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 192
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Beyond the apology to Rwanda: In Africa, is France still a 'silent colonizer'?

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 191
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Migration in Africa: Origin, Drivers and Destinations

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 190
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa:Three reasons why

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 189
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Libya: A new unity government and rekindled hope, a decade after the fall of Gaddafi

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 188
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Germany, Wildfires in Siberia and the Pegasus Spyware

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 183
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive in Afghanistan, Protests in Colombia, and the Heat Wave 

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 182
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Ethiopia, Berlin Conference on Libya and the World Drug Report

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 181
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US Juneteenth, UN resolution on Myanmar and Global Peace Index

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Europe
June 2021 | IPRI # 180
IPRI Comments

Chetna Vinay Bhora

Spain, Morocco and the rise of rightwing politics in Europe over immigration

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Southeast Asia
June 2021 | IPRI # 179
IPRI Comments

Anju Joseph

Timor Leste: Instability continues, despite 19 years of independence

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 178
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Three new reports on Child labour, Ethiopia and Xinjiang, Tensions in Belfast, and the Suu Kyi trial

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 177
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The UN report on Taliban-al Qaeda links, Denmark on relocating refugee camps, Burkino Faso massacre, Arctic melt, and Afghan trilateral dialogue

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Israel-Palestine Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 176
IPRI Comments

Udbhav Krishna P

Revisiting the recent violence: Three takeaways

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Gender Peace and Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 175
IPRI Comments

Vibha Venugopal

The return of Taliban will be bad news for women

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Nepal
June 2021 | IPRI # 174
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Fresh election-call mean unending cycle of instability

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 173
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing protests in Colombia, another mass abduction in Nigeria, and a controversial election in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 172
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Israel, NLD ban in Myanmar and a new Belarus crisis

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 171
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Elusive ceasefire in Israel-Palestine conflict, a migration crisis in Spain, three weeks of protests in Colombia, and the rise of Ransomware reign

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The Maldives
May 2021 | IPRI # 170
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

The bomb attack on Mohamed Nasheed. Is it political or jihadist?

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 169
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Escalating Israel-Palestine violence, an attack and a ceasefire in Afghanistan, and the fallouts of Scotland election for the UK

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Australia's indigenous communities
May 2021 | IPRI # 168
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

The systemic oppression continues despite three decades of the Royal Commission report

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Africa
May 2021 | IPRI # 167
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa. Three reasons why

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Afghanistan 
May 2021 | IPRI # 166
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The US decision to withdraw is a call made too early. Three reasons why

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 165
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violent protests in Colombia, US troops withdrawal in Afghanistan, and the battle for Marib in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 164
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Israel-Syria missile strikes, Clashes in Somalia and Afghan meetings in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 163
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

George Floyd murder trial, Fukushima water release controversy, anti-France protests in Pakistan, Report on the Rwandan genocide and another Loya Jirga in Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 162
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Riots in Northern Ireland, Sabotage on an Iranian nuclear facility, and a massacre in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 161
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Global gender gap report, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam talks failure, Maoist attack in India, Border tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the Security forces take control of Palma in Mozambique

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Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 160
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bloody Week in Myanmar, a Suicide attack in Indonesia and an Insurgency in Mozambique

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Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 159
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sanctions on China, Saudi Arabia ceasefire in Yemen, the UNHRC resolution on Sri Lanka, and a massacre in Niger

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Conflict Weekly #62
March 2021 | IPRI # 158
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Gender Protests in Australia, Expanding Violence in Myanmar and Anti-protests bill in the UK

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Conflict Weekly # 61
March 2021 | IPRI # 157
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Women’s Day, Swiss Referendum, Myanmar Violence, George Floyd Trial and Lebanon Protests

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Conflict Weekly #60
March 2021 | IPRI # 156
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

From Myanmar and Hong Kong in Asia to Nigeria in Africa: Seven conflicts this week

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Conflict Weekly # 59
February 2021 | IPRI # 155
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Protests in Myanmar, ‘Comfort Women’ issue in South Korea and Abductions in Nigeria

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Ethiopia
February 2021 | IPRI # 154
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Five fallouts of the military offensive in Tigray

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Afghanistan
February 2021 | IPRI # 153
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The recent surge in targeted killing vs the troops withdrawal

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 152
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

In Argentina, an extraordinarily progressive law on abortion brings the Conservatives to protest

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 151
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

In Poland, the protests against the abortion law feed into anti-government sentiments

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 150
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

In Honduras, a move towards a permanent ban on abortion laws

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 149
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

In Thailand, the new abortion law poses more questions

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Myanmar
February 2021 | IPRI # 148
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Civilian protests vs military: Three factors will decide the outcome in Myanmar

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Conflict Weekly # 58
February 2021 | IPRI # 147
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Separatism bill in France, Protests in Nepal against a gender-specific law, Surge in targetted killings in Afghanistan, and Instability continues in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly #57
February 2021 | IPRI # 146
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Coup protests in Myanmar, a new US strategy on Yemen, and the US-Iran differences on nuclear roadmap

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India and Sri Lanka
February 2021 | IPRI # 145
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan and Drorima Chatterjee

Five ways India can detangle the fishermen issue with Sri Lanka

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Conflict Weekly #56
February 2021 | IPRI # 144
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Myanmar and Protests in Russia

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Conflict Weekly #55
January 2021 | IPRI # 143
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers' protests in India, Vaccine Wars, another India-China border standoff, and Navalny's imprisonment

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Conflict Weekly # 54
January 2021 | IPRI # 142
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New President in the US, new Chinese Village in Arunachal Pradesh, new Israeli settlement in West Bank, and another massacre in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly # 53
January 2021 | IPRI # 141
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Trump impeached by the US House, Hazara miners buried in Pakistan, Farm laws stayed in India, and the Crisis escalation in CAR

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Conflict Weekly # 52
January 2021 | IPRI # 140
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

GCC lifts Qatar blockade, Iran decides to enrich uranium, Argentina legalizes abortion, French soldiers targeted in Mali, and the AFSPA extended in India's Northeast

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 139
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

The Middle East: The Abraham Accords may be the deal of the century, but comes with a heavy Palestinian cause  

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 138
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

France:  Needs to rethink  the state-religion relation in battling extremism

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 137
IPRI Comments

Teshu Singh

India and China: A tense border with compromise unlikely

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 136
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia: The conflict in Tigray and the regional fallouts

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 135
IPRI Comments

Kamna Tiwary

Europe: From anti-government protests in Belarus to ‘United for Abortion’ in Poland 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 134
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Brexit: A year of the UK-EU transition talks and finally, a Deal 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 133
IPRI Comments

Mallika Devi

Hong Kong: Slow Strangulation of Protests, Security Law and China's victory

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 132
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Thailand: For the pro-democracy protests, it is a long march ahead 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 131
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Nagorno-Karabakh: Rekindled fighting, Causalities and a Ceasefire

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 130
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Hot on the Conflict Trails: Top Ten Conflicts in 2020

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 129
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Boko Haram abductions in Nigeria, Violence in Afghanistan and Farmers' protest in India

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Gender Peace and Conflict
December 2020 | IPRI # 128
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

From Poland to India: More attacks on abortion rights coincide with the emergence of right

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 127
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers protest in India, Radicals target idols in Bangladesh, UK reaches out to the EU and Saudi Arabia to mend ties with Qatar

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 126
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An assassination in Iran, Massacre in Nigeria and Suicide bombings in Afghanistan

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The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 125
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Ensure the DDC elections are inclusive, free and fair

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Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 124
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Electoral violence in Africa, War crimes in Afghanistan, COVID's third global wave, and Protest escalation in Thailand

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Domestic turmoil and South Asia
November 2020 | IPRI # 123
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s 20-Amendment is more than what was bargained for

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Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 122
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US troops withdrawal, Violent protests in Thailand, Refugee crisis in Ethiopia, Anti-France protests in Pakistan and the Indo-Pak tensions along the LoC

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The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 121
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Alliance decides to fight the DDC elections together. The ballot may be thicker than principle

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Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 120
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A peace agreement in Nagorno-Karabakh and a brewing civil war in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 119
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

IS terror in Vienna and Kabul, new controversy along Nepal-China border, and a boundary dispute in India’s Northeast

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 118
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

The Friday Backgrounder: Union Government amends the land laws, and the Kashmiri Opposition protests. There is politics in both

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 117
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, rising gender violence shadows COVID-19 pandemic

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GLOBAL PROTESTS MOVEMENT
October 2020 | IPRI # 116
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Lebanon: One year of protests; it is more setbacks and little reforms

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 115
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, pandemic has eclipsed women’s role in peacebuilding

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 114
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The new demands within the State over the Official Language Act

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India's Northeast
October 2020 | IPRI # 113
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

The Naga Peace talks: Caught in its own rhetoric, NSCN(IM) will lose its stakes

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 112
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The Gupkar Declaration: Vociferous Valley and an Indifferent Jammu

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The Friday Backgrounder
October 2020 | IPRI # 111
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Flag, Constitution, Media Freedom and Local Elections

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 110
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Solidarity in France, Emergency withdrawn in Thailand, Terror tag removed in Sudan and Hunger in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 109
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests against sexual violence in Bangladesh, One year after Xi-Modi summit, Assassination of a Deobandi scholar in Pakistan and continuing violence in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 108
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An Afghan woman nominated for the Nobel and a Dalit woman assaulted in India. External actors get involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 107
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, women peacebuilders need more than a seat at the table

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 106
IPRI Comments

Tamanna Khosla

In India, home has been the most violent place for women

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 105
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

In India, pandemic relegates women peacebuilders to the margins

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 104
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six million COVID cases in India, Abdullah Abdullah's visit to Pakistan, China's naval exercises in four seas, and the new tensions in Nagorno Karabakh

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 103
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Al Qaeda module in India, Naga Peace talks and the Polio problem in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 102
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Afghan summit in Doha, India-China Five Points agreement, Women protest in Pakistan, New amendment in Sri Lanka and the Bahrain-Israel rapprochement

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The Middle East
September 2020 | IPRI # 101
IPRI Comments

Samreen Wani

Lebanon: Can Macron's visit prevent the unravelling?

read more
Africa
September 2020 | IPRI # 100
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

In Sudan, the government signs an agreement with the rebels. However, there are serious challenges

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 99
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Targeted Violence in Pakistan, Protests in Hong Kong and the Charlie Hebdo Trial in France

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
September 2020 | IPRI # 98
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: The PDP meeting, Muharram clashes and the Kashmiri parties vis-à-vis Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 97
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti Racist Protests in the US and the Floods in Pakistan

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 96
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali and Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Sri Lanka: Election Analysis, Expectations from the Government, Challenges Ahead, & a road map for India

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 95
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Resolution is a good beginning. So is the NIA charge sheet on the Pulwama Attack.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 94
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Proposed amendment in Sri Lanka, Verdict on the gunman in New Zealand, Peace Conference in Myanmar and the Ceasefire troubles in Libya

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 93
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Baby steps taken. Now, time to introduce a few big-ticket items

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 92
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Further trouble to the Naga Peace Talks, Taliban attack on woman negotiator, Protests in Thailand, Belarus and Bolivia, Israel-UAE Rapprochement, and the Oil Spill in Mauritius

read more
Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 91
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Integration and Assimilation are not synonymous.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 90
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Release of Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, Troubles in Naga Peace Talks in India’s Northeast, and a deadly week in Lebanon

read more
Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 89
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: One year later, is it time to change gears?

read more
Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 88
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka Elections 2020 - A Curtain Raiser: Issues, Actors, and Challenges

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 87
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

J&K a year after 5 August 2019, Militant ambush in Manipur, Environmental protests in Northeast India, and the return of street protests in Iraq

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 86
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Omar Abdullah complains, there is no space for mainstream leaders. Should there be one?

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Conflict Weekly 28
July 2020 | IPRI # 85
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Bihar, Nepal and Bangladesh, Abduction of a journalist in Pakistan, Neutralization of militants in Srinagar and the UNAMA report on Afghanistan

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 84
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, 20 years later women still await the return of post war normalcy

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 83
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: After the Hurriyat, is the PDP relevant in Kashmir politics today?

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Conflict Weekly 27
July 2020 | IPRI # 82
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Devastating floods in Assam, and a mob Lynching of cattle smugglers along India-Bangladesh border

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 81
IPRI Comments

Mehjabin Ferdous

In Bangladesh, laws need to catch up with reality

read more
Conflict Weekly 26
July 2020 | IPRI # 80
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in India's Northeast, FGM ban in Sudan, the UN warning on Global Hunger & the Return of Global Protests

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 79
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Four years after Burhan Wani

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Conflict Weekly 25
July 2020 | IPRI # 78
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict and COVID in J&K, Dispute over constructing a temple in Islamabad, Return of the Indian fishermen into the Sri Lankan Waters, and the water conflict over River Nile in Africa

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 77
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

The Rise, Fall and Irrelevance of Geelani. And the Hurriyat

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Conflict Weekly 24
July 2020 | IPRI # 76
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Geelani's Exit and Continuing Violence in J&K, and the BLA attack on Pakistan stock exchange in Karachi

read more
June 2020 | IPRI # 75
IPRI Comments

Sudip Kumar Kundu

Cyclone Amphan: West Bengal, Odisha limp back to a distorted normalcy

read more
June 2020 | IPRI # 74
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

An olive branch to the PTM in Pakistan: Will the PTI heed to the Pashtun rights movement

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Conflict Weekly 23
June 2020 | IPRI # 73
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Baloch Disappearance issue returns, Nepal tightens Citizenship rules, and Egypt enters the conflict in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 22
June 2020 | IPRI # 72
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence escalates along the India-China border, Cartographic tensions over India-Nepal border, Gas explosion in Assam and Deadly attacks by the Boko Haram in Nigeria

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Conflict Weekly 21
June 2020 | IPRI # 71
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Echoes of Black Lives Matter, Violence in Kashmir Valley, Rohingyas in the deep blue sea, One year of Hong Kong protests, Conflict in Libya and the human-wildlife conflict in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly 20
June 2020 | IPRI # 70
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A week of violence in the US, Afghanistan and Africa, Urban drivers of political violence, and anti-racism protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 19
May 2020 | IPRI # 69
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal, Ceasefire in Afghanistan, Indo-Nepal border dispute in Kalapani, Honour Killing in Pakistan, New protests  in Hong Kong & the Anti-lockdown protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 18
May 2020 | IPRI # 68
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Kalapani dispute in India-Nepal border, Migrants exodus in India, Continuing violence in Balochistan and KP

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Conflict Weekly 17
May 2020 | IPRI # 67
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The return of Hong Kong Protests, a new Ceasefire in Myanmar, China-Australia Tensions on COVID & Trade, and the Al Qaeda-Islamic State clashes in Africa

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Conflict Weekly 16
May 2020 | IPRI # 66
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Binge-fighting in Kashmir Valley, SIGAR report on Afghanistan, Killing of a PTM leader in Pakistan, the US Religious Freedom watchlist, and Haftar's ceasefire call in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 15
April 2020 | IPRI # 65
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire and Self Rule in Yemen, Syrian war trial in Germany, SIPRI annual report on military spending, and Low civilian casualties in Afghanistan 

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 64
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

Healing needs Forgiveness, Accountability, Responsibility and Justice

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 63
IPRI Comments

La Toya Waha

Have the Islamists Won? 

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Conflict Weekly 14
April 2020 | IPRI # 62
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A new wave of arrests in Hong Kong, One year after Easter Sunday attacks in Sri Lanka, ISIS violence in Mozambique, and the coming global Food Crisis

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 61
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Jharkhand: Proactive Judiciary, Strong Civil Society Role, Rural Vigilantes

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 60
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Bihar as Late Entrant: No Prompt Action, Punitive Measures, Migrant Crisis 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 59
IPRI Comments

Anshuman Behera

Odisha’s Three Principles: Prepare for the Worst, Prepare Early, Prevent Loss of Lives

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 58
IPRI Comments

Niharika Sharma

New Delhi as Hotspot: Border Sealing, Curbing Fake News, Proactive leadership

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 57
IPRI Comments

Vaishali Handique

Northeast India: Civil Society in Unison, Media against Racism, Government’s Timely Preparedness 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 56
IPRI Comments

Shyam Hari P

Kerala: Past Lessons and War-Footing response by the administration

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 55
IPRI Comments

Shilajit Sengupta

West Bengal: Proactive Local Leadership, Early Lockdown and Decentralised Action

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 54
IPRI Comments

P Harini Sha

Tamil Nadu’s Three Pronged Approach: Delay Virus Spread, Community Preparedness, Welfare Schemes 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 53
IPRI Comments

Hrudaya C Kamasani

Andhra Pradesh: Early course correction, Independent leadership and Targeted Mitigation  

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 52
IPRI Comments

Sanduni Atapattu

Preventing hatred and suspicion would be a bigger struggle

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 51
IPRI Comments

Chavindi Weerawansha

A majority in the minority community suffers, for the action of a few

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 50
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

The Cardinal sermons for peace, with a message to forgive

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 49
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Who and Why of the Perpetrators

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 48
IPRI Comments

Natasha Fernando

In retrospect, where did we go wrong?

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 47
IPRI Comments

Ruwanthi Jayasekara

Build the power of Co-existence, Trust, Gender and Awareness

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 46
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

New ethnic faultlines at macro and micro levels

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 45
IPRI Comments

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera

A year has gone, but the pain has not vanished

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 44
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, it is a struggle for the women out of the patriarchal shadows

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 43
IPRI Comments

Jenice Jean Goveas

In India, the glass is half full for the women

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 42
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, there is no going back for the women

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Conflict Weekly 13
April 2020 | IPRI # 41
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Executing Mujib's killer in Bangladesh, Continuing conflicts in Myanmar, Questioning Government's sincerity in Naga Peace Deal, Releasing Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, and a report on damming the Mekong river by China

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Conflict Weekly 12
April 2020 | IPRI # 40
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Globally, Coronavirus increases Domestic Violence, deflates Global Protests, threatens Indigenous Communities and imperils the migrants. In South Asia, two reports question the Assam Foreign Tribunal and the Afghan Peace deal

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Afghanistan
April 2020 | IPRI # 39
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

One month after the deal with the Taliban: Problems Four, Progress None

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Conflict Weekly 11
April 2020 | IPRI # 38
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Releasing a former soldier convicted of a war crime in Sri Lanka, Deepening of internal conflicts in Myanmar and the Taliban’s Deal is a smokescreen in Afghanistan

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Report Review
March 2020 | IPRI # 37
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

Pakistan: Decline in Terrorism

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Conflict Weekly 10
March 2020 | IPRI # 36
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

More violence in Afghanistan, Naxal ambush in India, Federal-Provincial differences in Pakistan's Corona fight, and a new report on the impact of CoronaVirus on Conflicts

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Conflict Weekly 09
March 2020 | IPRI # 35
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The CoronaVirus: South Asia copes, China stabilises, Europe bleeds and the US wakes up finally

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Conflict Weekly 08
March 2020 | IPRI # 34
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Triumphant Women's march across Pakistan, Anti-CAA Protests in Dhaka,  Two Presidents in Afghanistan, and Turkey-Russia Ceasefire in Syria

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Conflict Weekly 07
March 2020 | IPRI # 33
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Aurat March in Pakistan, US-Taliban Deal in Doha, Anti-CAA protest in Meghalaya, Sri Lanka’s withdrawal from the UNCHCR Resolution, and the problems of ceasefire in Syria and Libya 

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Conflict Weekly 06
February 2020 | IPRI # 32
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Seven Days of Peace in Afghanistan, Violence in Delhi, Setback to Peace Talks on Libya and the Ceasefire in Gaza

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Conflict Weekly 05
February 2020 | IPRI # 31
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Afghan Election Results, US-Taliban Deal, Hafiz Saeed Conviction, Quetta Suicide Attack, Assam Accord, Mexico Femicide and the Climate Change impact on Bird Species

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Conflict Weekly 04
February 2020 | IPRI # 30
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka drops Tamil anthem, Assam looks for a new census for the indigenous Muslim population, Bangladesh faces a Rohingya boat tragedy and Israel witnesses resurgence of violence post-Trump deal

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Conflict Weekly 03
February 2020 | IPRI # 29
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Violence in Afghanistan, Bodo Peace Accord in Northeast India, Attack on the anti-CAA protesters in Delhi, and Trump's Middle East Peace Plan

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Conflict Weekly 02
January 2020 | IPRI # 28
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bangladesh and ICJ's Rohingya Verdict, Taliban and Afghan Peace, Surrenders in India's Northeast, New government in Lebanon and the Berlin summit on Libya

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Conflict Weekly 01
January 2020 | IPRI # 27
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Nile River Agreement, Tehran Protests, Syrians meet in Berlin, Honduran Caravans in Mexico, Taliban's ceasefire offer, Quetta Suicide attack, Supreme court verdict on J&K and the Brus Agreement in Tripura

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Myanmar
October 2019 | IPRI # 26
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Will prosecuting Suu Kyi resolve the Rohingya problem?

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Climate Change
October 2019 | IPRI # 25
IPRI Comments

Lakshman Chakravarthy N & Rashmi Ramesh

Four Actors, No Action

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From Okjökull to OK:
September 2019 | IPRI # 24
IPRI Comments

Rashmi Ramesh

Death of a Glacier in Iceland

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The Hong Kong Protests:
August 2019 | IPRI # 23
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Re-defining mass mobilization

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The Hong Kong Protest:
August 2019 | IPRI # 22
IPRI Comments

Parikshith Pradeep

Who Wants What?

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Africa
December 2020 | IPRI # 6
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ballots and Bloodshed: Trends of electoral violence in Africa

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Myanmar
March 2019 | IPRI # 5
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

The Other Conflict in Rakhine State

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West Asia
February 2019 | IPRI # 4
IPRI Comments

Seetha Lakshmi Dinesh Iyer

Yemen: Will Sa'nna fall?

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China and Islam
February 2019 | IPRI # 3
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudhan

Sinicizing the Minorities

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Terrorism
January 2019 | IPRI # 2
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Maghreb: What makes al Shahab Resilient?

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Global Politics
January 2019 | IPRI # 1
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Myanmar: Will 2019 be better for the Rohingya?

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