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Conflict Weekly #136, 11 August 2022, Vol.3, No.19
An initiative by NIAS-IPRI and the India Office of the KAS

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IPRI # 299, 11 August 2022

Conflict Weekly
Precarious ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh, fresh rounds of violence in Gaza, and the new US bill supporting climate change

  IPRI Team

Abigail Miriam Fernandez, Lavanya Ravi, and Vijay Anand Panigrahi 



Armenia-Azerbaijan: Renewed fighting in the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region
In the news
On 8 August, Azerbaijan accused Armenia of targeting its military positions 10 times in 24 hours. The Azeri Defence Ministry claimed that in six of the incidents, Armenian forces opened fire “from positions in the direction of the Basarkechar, Garakilsa and Gorus regions” on Azeri military units “stationed in the direction of the Kalbajar and Lachin regions.” 

On 3 August, Azerbaijan had claimed it had captured the territory in Karabakh in a retaliatory campaign, Operation Revenge, after an Armenian attack near Nagorno-Karabakh killed one Azeri soldier. Additionally, Baku accused Yerevan of violating the ceasefire, stating that its forces thwarted the Armenian troops’ attempt to capture a hill in the Lachin district, an area controlled by Russian peacekeepers. Meanwhile, the military in Nagorno-Karabakh disputed this and accused Azerbaijan of killing two soldiers, declaring a “partial mobilization” in response to the clash. Following the incident, Armenia called on the international community to help stop Azerbaijan’s “aggressive actions” claiming that Azerbaijan continues its “policy of terror” against the population of Nagorno-Karabakh.

Meanwhile, Russia accused Azerbaijan of violating the ceasefire over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and that Russia was "taking measures to stabilize the situation" with Armenian and Azeri representatives.

Issues at large
First, the recurring skirmishes in Nagorno-Karabakh. The dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh which ended with a Russian-brokered agreement on 10 November 2020 was seen as a victory for Azerbaijan and a defeat for Armenia. However, the ceasefire has since been broken several times with skirmishes becoming a common occurrence in the region. A report by the International Crisis Group highlighted that since mid-July, residents of Azeri villages have testified to increased Azeri forces' activity in Lachin, near the border with Armenia, and Shusha, which lies on high ground close to Stepanakert making it a strategic outpost. 

Second, grievances of de facto authority in Nagorno-Karabakh. The ethnically Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, also known as the Republic of Artsakh, has expressed frustration over Armenia’s willingness to make concessions to Azerbaijan under a larger prospective peace settlement. Additionally, reports of top Artsakh officials planning a referendum to become part of Russia have increased pressure on Armenia to address these issues. Meanwhile, Azerbaijan has raised concerns over Nagorno-Karabakh’s de facto authorities retaining an armed force, arguing that this force was illegal and has urged Russian peacekeepers to disarm it. However, Armenia and the de facto authorities rebutted it claiming disarmament was never part of the ceasefire deal.

Third, the stalled negotiations. Armenian and Azeri diplomats have been meeting regularly to formulate a peace deal to resolve the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute. However, several unresolved issues are yet to be addressed. These include delimiting the border between the two countries, the nature of new transportation corridors in the region, and the fate of Nagorno-Karabakh itself and its current ethnic Armenian population.

Fourth, the apprehensions of Russian peacekeepers. Since 2020, there have been growing frustrations over the Russian peacekeepers’ presence in the region and their inaction in stopping ceasefire violations. Additionally, Russian peacekeeping forces conducted daily patrols in the disputed regions, but the patrols stopped a couple of days before the recent Azeri advances drawing criticism to the Russian troops in the region. 

In perspective
First, the continuation of ceasefire violations. The Nagorno-Karabakh region is likely to witness the continuation of low-intensity attacks as a result of the fallouts of the ceasefire. The 2020 ceasefire agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan has failed to initiate a peace process because it has altered the power balance between the two countries and left many issues unresolved. Thus, these recurring skirmishes are likely to continue in the future.

Second, the rise of the de facto authority in Nagorno-Karabakh. Over the past few months, the de facto authority in Nagorno-Karabakh has stepped up its engagement with the region both militarily and politically. This is a cause of concern for both countries as they are unable to consult with the group. 

Third, Russian peacekeeping forces. Russian diplomatic efforts and their peacekeepers' presence have not deterred an escalation in the situation. Since the Ukraine war, Russian peacekeeping forces have been criticised for being inactive in the region. Thus, the pressure on the peacekeeping forces is likely to increase.


Israel-Gaza: intermittent attacks end with Egypt-UN mediated ceasefire
In the news
On 5 August, Israel bombarded the Gaza strip of Palestine with missile attacks killing at least 45 people, including 16 children, and injuring more than 260. The “pre-emptive” strike by Israel called operation Breaking Dawn lasted three days. In retaliation, on 6 August the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) launched a volley of 1,100 projectiles targeting Tel Aviv and other heavily populated areas of Israel. 

On 8 August,Tthree days after the raids and counterattacks, an Egypt-UN mediated ceasefire was agreed upon. The PIJ demanded the release of its officials, Khalil Awawda (within the day) and Sheikh Bassam al-Saadi (within two weeks) to uphold the ceasefire. An Egyptian delegation in Tel Aviv was working on the release. The ceasefire has been upheld by both sides, but they have reserved the right to respond if the truce is breached. 

On 9 August, an emergency UN Security Council meeting was held to discuss the situation in Gaza and the ceasefire agreement. Israel’s Ambassador Gilad Erdan called for the UNSC to place “full accountability” on the PIJ, stating “They fire rockets at Israeli civilians while using Gazans as human shields. This is a double war crime.” A UN Special Rapporteur, meanwhile, termed Israel’s strikes “illegal and irresponsible” and has called for an investigation to check if Israel had breached international law. 

Issues at large
First, Israel’s motive behind the attack. Israel in the past week carried out raids on the Jenin refugee camp and arrested Bassam al-Saadi, a senior member of the PIJ. Israel then proceeded to launch a “pre-emptive” strike to prevent the PIJ from responding to the raids and arrests. Additionally, Israel’s interim Prime Minister Yair Lapid is hoping to be elected to power in general elections scheduled for November 2022. This attack can be seen as a political move to display power and ensure he gets elected.

Second, PIJ’s retaliation. The PIJ’s poorly planned attack resulted in 200 projectiles falling inside Gaza and injuring more civilians. As a result, Israel and its allies feel justified to brand PIJ as terrorists and support Israel’s right to defend itself. Israel has blamed the PIJ for the deaths of Gaza’s residents and launched an investigation into the errant missiles that hit the strip.

Third, Israel’s targetting of high-ranking officials of PIJ. In its attack, Israel killed two commanders of the PIJ, Tayir al-Jabari of the al-Quds brigade and Khaled Mansour from Jabari’s southern counterpart. Israeli attacks are aimed at weakening any resistance by Palestine and targeting its senior officials reduces the military might of Palestine. 

Fourth, US support for Israel. The US Ambassador to the UN, Linda Thomas Greenfield, has supported Israel’s right to defend itself against terrorist threats and many US officials have sent out tweets appreciating the Iron Dome system. The US has firmly stated its support for Israel in the international arena. 

Fifth, regional divide on the attacks. The countries that have signed the Abraham accords such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Morocco have refrained from condemning Israel’s attacks. At the same time, Iran which supports and funds the PIJ warned that Israel will pay a heavy price for these attacks. Egypt, Turkey, and Qatar have condemned Israel’s aggression. 

In perspective
First, relief to Gaza’s residents. The blockade imposed by Israel on Palestine has been lifted as a part of the ceasefire agreement and humanitarian aid has been flowing into the Gaza strip much to the relief of its residents. The only power plant in Gaza, previously shut down due to the raids, received fuel shipments, and power has been restored to the Gaza strip. The ceasefire provides time for injured civilians to recover and mourn their losses.

Second, the fragility of the truce. The terms of the truce are contingent upon Israel releasing the PIJ officials it arrested. Both sides have explicitly stated that they reserve the right to respond if the truce is breached. There is a high risk that any side may launch another attack in what they consider a breach. 
 
Third, Israel’s recurring attacks. Israel undertakes pre-emptive attacks on various locations in Palestine stating that it's defending itself from Palestine’s terror attacks even when there has been no provocation. In the current round of attacks, Israel has punished Gaza before it responded, which does not justify its claim of self-defence. Against this backdrop, similar incidents, such as what happened in the early week of August, are likely to recur in the Israel-Palestine conflict.


The US: White House to invest USD 370 billion through Climate Bill
In the news
On 7 August, the US Senate Democrats passed the Inflation Reduction Act aiming to combat climate change, lower the cost of prescription drugs, and increase the corporate tax to extract revenue. US President Joe Biden said: “The House should pass this as soon as possible and I look forward to signing it into law". This act focuses largely on the climate crisis and will inject over USD 370 billion to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent below 2005 levels by the year 2030. This act could become the most significant federal investment ever to have addressed the climate change battle. 

The bill suggests an increase in the production of cleaner energy through solar and wind power. It also proposes to bring down the prices of electric vehicles to boost their market demand and to provide oil companies with USD 1.5 billion to encourage them with technologies like carbon capture and sequestration. The bill also mandated the government a lease sale of around 60 million acres of federal waters for the production of oil and gas, keeping intact the availability of fossil fuels as well. 

Issues at large
Firstly, the energy consumption trajectory. The US is the second largest carbon emitter after China but has failed to live up to its greenhouse gas reduction commitments made during COP summits. The US commitment to cut its carbon emission by half by 2030 was derailed by the untimely Russian invasion of Ukraine, which created a fuel supply shortage around the world, and led the countries to look for self-reliant options. Consequently, the Biden administration has pressed for an increase in oil and gas production to combat the crisis. However, the administration has now pushed forward a bill that transforms the American energy consumption and climate policy sector. 
 
Secondly, the divided Senate. Following a 27-hour-long session, the bill was passed with a party-line vote of 51-50, which indicates the displeasure of the Republicans who claim that such heavy expenditure will only cause further deterioration of the economy. Some fellow Democrats like Kyrsten Sinema also raised opposing remarks, causing some addition and subtraction to the bill. Although there was criticism among the Democrats, they were united when it came to voting for the bill. The Republicans opposed the Democrats' claim that the bill will pay for itself by pointing out the reinstatement of the “Superfund tax.” This will reinstate taxes on crude oil and imported petroleum products thereby increasing spending.  

Thirdly, the role of the MNCs. Although the bill postulates a deliberate strain on the corporate sector, the major MNCs in the petroleum sector like Shell US, Chevron, and ExxonMobil have all lauded the introduction of the bill. However, the imposition of a minimum corporate tax on the richest corporation might not sit right with them. This tax demands a 15 percent return, which expects to bring around USD 313 billion in revenue.
 
In perspective
Firstly, the reconciliation factor. After an 18-month-long wait, the Senate passed the bill through a parliamentary manoeuvre called reconciliation, which allows approval by a simple majority. This move might return to haunt them if the policy does not fare as planned. However, manufacturing more solar panels and wind turbines will create a new job market, which will play to the advantage of the Democrats. Similarly, the lowered cost of energy consumption will be another deciding factor for the people in the upcoming elections.

Secondly, the election gamble. The Democrats are hoping that the people will understand their approach to reducing carbon emissions. However, the rising inflation is an immediate roadblock. The Democrats claim that the policy will pay for itself and will reduce the federal deficit over time, but it certainly won’t happen in three months. The Republicans have already claimed that this policy is a job-killing spending spree that will lead to a state of recession. Now, the Democrats have to play safe and not let the Republicans be proven right three months before the elections.
 
Lastly, the government’s whopping financial commitment reflects how they are not afraid to make big decisions. Moreover, the bill would bring the US to the forefront of the climate change battle. Being the second-largest carbon emitter, this action by the US will encourage more nations to take concrete steps toward saving the environment. 
 


Also, from around the World
By Avishka Ashok, Sruthi Sadhasivam, Akriti Sharma, Abigail Miriam Fernandez, Joel Jacob, Rashmi BR, Apoorva Sudhakar, Rishma Banerjee, and Padmashree Anandhan
 
East and Southeast Asia
China: Taiwan reacts to military drills by conducting counter-drill exercises
On 8 August, Taiwan’s Eighth Army Corps spokesperson announced that the army would hold anti-landing exercises in Pingtung as China continued its military drills in response to the US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit. On the same day, China’s Eastern Theatre Command announced that it would conduct joint drills including anti-submarine and sea assault operations after its initial four days of military drills. The duration of the drills has not been disclosed.

China: Foreign Minister explains stance on the South China Sea issue
On 5 August, China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi addressed the 12th East Asia Summit Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Cambodia and reiterated China’s stance on the South China Sea issue. Wang invoked the historic and legal basis to justify China’s claims and position over the South China Sea. He further explained that China was committed to resolving issues through bilateral consultation and negotiation and adhered to the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea. On the US involvement in the issue, Wang expressed China’s discontent over the sudden US interest after pledging non-interference in the sovereignty of the islands. He said: “What is the credibility of a major country if it changes its established policies so arbitrarily according to its own political needs? How can it win the trust of others in the future?”

China: NGO report accuses the US of human rights violation
On 9 August, the China Society for Human Rights Studies released a report on the alleged human rights violation by the US in the Middle East and other geographic regions. The report claimed that the US was responsible for serious crimes in the Middle East, including launching wars, massacring civilians, causing harm to human life and property, and infringing on people’s livelihood. The report said: “Facts show that the United States has seriously violated the basic human rights of people in the Middle East and other places, causing permanent damage and irreparable losses to countries and people in the region.”

China: Envoys from 30 Islamic countries visit Xinjiang
On 7 August, Xinhua Net reported that 30 Islamic countries had sent their envoys to visit the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China. The envoys from Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Yemen, and Pakistan visited the capital city Urumqi from 1 to 5 August and were briefed about the economic and social development of the Chinese government. The visit was an opportunity for the country to portray a different narrative from the one being propagated by the Western countries.
 
Vietnam: Insists on conflict de-escalation in the Taiwan Strait
On 3 August, the Vietnam government called international actors to refrain from aggravating the conflict in the Taiwan Strait. The spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said: “Việt Nam persists in implementing the ‘One China’ principle and hopes relevant parties exercise restraint, refrain from escalating the situation in the Taiwan Strait, and actively contribute to the maintenance of peace and stability, promoting cooperation and development of the region and the world.” The government’s response comes in the wake of the US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan to extend support in the face of threats from China. 
 
Myanmar: Insurgent groups capture military camps
On 8 August, Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and People’s Defense Forces (PDF) acquired control over two military camps in Hpakant Township, Kachin State. They captured camps in Sezin village, Hpakant, and Shwe Pyi Myint village. The latter region houses Shanni Nationalities Army (SNA), an ethnic Lisu militia group that shares close connections with the Junta troops. As a result of increasing conflict, the junta “launched air strikes” in the region. As of now, the KIA and PDF forces have collaborated in launching attacks in the Kachin State and the upper Sagaing region. 
 
South Asia
Bangladesh: Dhaka witnesses protests over hike in fuel prices
On 7 August, people in Dhaka protested against the hike in fuel prices. Protestors demanded a decrease in fuel prices to their previous rates in two days, cancellation of a hike in transport prices, and concessions for students using public transport. Bangladesh increased petrol prices by 51.1 per cent and kerosene prices by 42.5 per cent. This is the largest hike in fuel prices in the history of the country. Bangladesh has taken the step to counter rising inflation and address the increase in the deficit. It has sought assistance from IMF to manage its foreign reserves.
 
Afghanistan: ISIS-K claims responsibility for two explosions targeting Shias in Kabul
On 5 August, eight people were killed and 18 others injured in Kabul during a Shia community gathering in Kabul’s western neighbourhood Sar-e-Kariz. On 6 August, three people were killed and seven others were injured in a blast in Kabul's Pol-e-Sukhta area, another Shia-dominated area. The Islamic State-Khorasan Province (ISIS-K), the official affiliate of the Islamic State, claimed responsibility for these attacks on the Shia community during the days of the Ashura. The UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) said: “Following the Islamic State-claimed blasts in Kabul in recent days that killed and injured more than 120 people, the UN family in Afghanistan urges greater security for minorities so that Ashura can be marked without further attacks.”

Pakistan: Protests laid off for 24 hours by North Waziristan
On 7 August, the elders from the settled districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa approached the Jirga of the Uthmanzai tribe and requested them to end their three-week-long protest against the targeted killing and to reopen the roads and bazaars. Dozens of loaded vehicles had been stranded on the highway. Trade with Afghanistan via Ghulam Khan Border crossing has also been halted due to the closure of roads in the district. The elders, following Pakhtun traditions, also presented sheep to the Jirga as Nanawati, which is a way of seeking reconciliation or mediation. Officials said that the tribe had accepted the Nanawati and postponed their strike for the next 24 hours.

Pakistan: Taliban confirms TTP leader’s killing in Afghanistan
On 8 August, Taliban spokesperson Muhammad Khorasani confirmed the killing of senior Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) leader Omar Khalid Khorasani and two others in a roadside bomb attack in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, TTP officials urged the Taliban government in Afghanistan to investigate the incident and unearth “spies” who could be responsible for the death of senior TTP leaders.

Pakistan: Four soldiers killed in North Waziristan suicide attack
On 9 August, the Inter-Services Public Relations said that four soldiers were killed in a suicide blast at a military convoy in the Mir Ali area of North Waziristan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.  According to the ISPR, intelligence agencies have begun investigations on the suicide bomber who carried out the attack and his handlers and facilitators.
 
Central Asia, Middle East, and Africa
Israel-Palestine: Israeli forces kill al-Aqsa Brigades commander
On 9 August, the Israeli forces raided Nablus, a city on the West Bank, and killed Ibrahim al-Nablusi, the Commander of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. Al-Nablusi was on the run for several months and had survived multiple assassination attempts by the Israeli forces. The Palestinian Health Ministry said that the gunfire lasted for several hours leaving three Palestinians dead and wounding 60 others.

Lebanon: Hezbollah warns Israel against targeting Palestinian militants in Lebanon
On 9 August, Hezbollah’s chief Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah warned Israel against conducting any operation against the Palestinian militants who were in Lebanon. In a televised address on the Day of Ashura, he said “any attack on any human being will not go unpunished or unanswered.” The statement comes as a response to Israeli Defence Minister Benny Gantz who said that the country will take action against the Islamic Jihad militants and officials who are in Iran, Syria, and Lebanon.

Iraq: Protests by al-Sadr’s supporters
The demonstrations in support of the Sadrist movement continued through the week, and the protestors continued their sit-in at the Parliament building in Baghdad, calling for the dissolution of the Parliament and early elections. Meanwhile, the southern Iraqi province of Basra also saw massive protests, with people taking to the streets to protest against the power cuts. The protests began after the collapse of the electricity grid in six southern provinces due to excessive demand amid temperatures reaching 50 degrees Celsius. The protestors in Basra also supported al-Sadr’s candidature.

Yemen: Conflict escalates between the UAE and Saudi Arabia-backed fighter groups 
On 8 August, violence broke out between the proxy fighters of the UAE and the Islamic alliance of Saudi Arabia in the southern province of Yemen, Shabwah, marking the largest clash since the new President Abd Rabbuh Mansour Hadi took the position. To control the fight, the Presidential Council replaced many local military leaders but failed to deter the escalation. According to locals, the reason behind the conflict was the divide between the population and provocation by Governor, Awlaqi who claims to be the representative of the Presidential Council. Awlaqi stated: “I appeal to my brothers and the residents of Shabwah to stop the bloodshed and to stop the escalation and fighting that establish conflicts and societal strife that only serves parties from outside the governorate.”

Senegal: Government and separatist group sign peace agreement
On 4 August, the rebel group Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance signed a peace agreement with the federal government. Signing the agreement in The Gambia, the group agreed to lay down their arms. However, Amnesty International’s Senegal Director said the group did not pose a huge threat to regional stability; instead, groups operating along the Gambian border were more aggressive. Therefore, the Director emphasized the need to include other groups in negotiations towards a peace deal.

South Africa: Migrants attacked by a mob for alleged criminal activities
On 4 August, residents of the Krugersdorp township attacked migrants accusing them of criminal activities in the area. The development comes after 130 people were arrested on charges of raping eight South African women near a mining dump on 28 July. The residents attacked the migrants with machetes and hammers; they also stripped and whipped the migrants before setting the migrant camps on fire. A witness to the demonstration against the migrants said: “We want support from the police because the illegal miners are terrorizing us. We cannot simply walk around the neighbourhood at night because they rape us.” Krugersdorp houses several criminal gangs attempting to exploit the abandoned mines in search of any leftover gold. Several immigrants from Lesotho, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe live in the area.

Democratic Republic of Congo: MONUSCO spokesperson expelled over remarks
On 3 August, the Foreign Ministry released a statement expelling the MONUSCO spokesperson claiming that the UN official had stoked tensions leading to week-long protests. The government accused the spokesperson of making “indelicate and inappropriate” statements and therefore maintained that the UN official’s presence will not “promote a climate of mutual trust and calm between Congolese institutions and MONUSCO.”
 
Europe and the Americas
Russia: Iranian Satellite launched by Soyuz-2.1b amid the Ukrainian War
On 9 August, the Russian launch rocket Soyuz-2.1b carried Iran’s Khayyam satellite from the Russia-controlled Baikonur cosmodrome. Despite the global criticism and boycott of Russia, Iran has maintained its ties with Moscow. In this context, they have refrained from criticising the Ukraine invasion and deflected suspicions that Moscow could use Khayyam to spy on Ukraine. Western intelligence officials claim that Russia "plans to use the satellite for several months or longer" by using the data to assist its war efforts before allowing Iran to take control of the Khayyam. To this, the Iranian Space Agency responded by saying, "No third country is able to access the information" sent by Khayyam and the data that would be transmitted would be controlled by Iran from day one and is unlikely to be useful for Russia due to the "encrypted algorithm.”

Russia: Moscow responds to Zelenskyy’s call to deprive Russian citizens of access to the West
On 8 August, in an interview with the Washington Post, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy proposed to ban all Russian travelers from going to the West. Ahead of the anticipated referendums, Zelenskyy called on the Western countries to shut their borders to all Russian nationals regardless of their stance on their country’s invasion of Ukraine. The Kremlin criticized the move calling it “off-the-scale irrationality,” and said the measure was unfeasible and counterproductive. Anti-war Russians too were not supportive of the proposal and warned that it could backfire and consolidate Putin’s support base.

Russia: Brittney Griner’s sentence signals prisoner exchange talks between Russia and the US
On 4 August, US basketball star Brittney Griner was convicted in Russia of drug possession and sentenced to nine years in prison. She was also fined RUB one million, following a long and politically charged trial. On 05 August, after her sentencing, Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that Moscow is prepared to discuss a possible prisoner exchange with the US. The exchange is likely to see Griner and Paul Whelan, arrested in Russia for espionage charges being exchanged for Victor Bout, an infamous arms dealer from Russia.

Russia and Ukraine: Blame game over Zaporizhzhya shelling
On 5 and 7 August, shelling was reported at Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant. The shells hit a high voltage power line due to which operators had to disconnect two reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency Director, General Rafael Mariano Grossi, criticized the action saying that it was risking a nuclear disaster, and has asked for access to the plant. Ukraine's state nuclear power company Energoatom said that Russia was engaging in “nuclear terrorism”, but Russia's Defence Ministry accused Ukrainian forces of shelling the plant.

Ukraine: Amnesty International report blames Ukraine for risking civilian lives
On 4 July, Amnesty International in its recent report accused Ukraine of voluntarily endangering civilian lives by concentrating its troops in residential areas. The report stated that establishing military bases was not only risking civilians but also violating the laws of war. In response, Zelenskyy said that Russia’s aggression in Ukraine cannot be justified and blamed the report for promoting propaganda and using disinformation tactics like Russia. Later, Amnesty International announced that they regretted the distress caused by the report but confirmed the charge behind its findings.

Latin America: Fourth oil tanker damaged in the continuing fire in Cuba
On 9 August, the fire at the oil storage in western Cuba continues. The firefighters and rescuers have been attempting to control the blaze through boats, planes, and spraying foam, but the fourth tank has caught fire. So far, one person has died and 125 injured; 14 firefighters have been missing. The tank facility is key to Cuba’s electricity supply as it depends on the oil pipelines, and it is also important for unloading and transhipments to import crude oil, fuel oil, and diesel. Therefore, Cuba is set to be impacted economically and face electricity shortages from the continuing fire. 


About the authors 
Akriti Sharma and Harini Madhusudan are doctoral scholars at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Avishka Ashok, Abigail Miriam Fernandez, Apoorva Sudhakar, and Padmashree Anandhan are Project Associates at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Joel Jacob is a Research Intern at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Lavanya Ravi and Sruthi Sadhasivam are postgraduate students from Christ (deemed to be) University, Bangalore. Vijay Anand Panigrahi is a postgraduate student from Pondicherry University, Puducherry.


 

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May 2022 | IPRI # 276
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Wagner Group: Russia's Proxies or Ghost Soldiers?

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 275
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Mali ends defence ties with France: What does this mean

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 274
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Mali-France tensions and anti-UK protests in the Virgin Islands

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 273
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

​​​​​​​UK-Rwanda asylum deal, Mexico's continuing femicides, and Afghanistan's sectarian violence 

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 272
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The battle for Donbas, Violence in Jerusalem, Riots in Sweden, Kyrgyzstan- Tajikistan border dialogue, and China’s military drills

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 271
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in Nigeria, and Russia’s new military strategy in Ukraine

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 270
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Political Crises in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Tunisia; Ceasefire in Yemen; and the Battle for Mariupol

read more
NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 269
IPRI Briefs

Sourina Bej

Ceasefire trails in Naga conflict: Space for peace parleys and violent politics

read more
NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 268
IPRI Briefs

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Failing Peace in Darfur: Multiple Actors, No Outcome

read more
NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 267
IPRI Briefs

Jeshil Samuel J

The 2014 Gaza Ceasefire: A Stopgap to Peace dividend

read more
NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 266
IPRI Briefs

Dincy Adlakha

The 1999 Lome Peace Agreement: Issues and failed aspirations

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 265
IPRI Briefs

Anju C Joseph

Ceasefire in Moro Conflict: No lasting solution in sight

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 264
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

30 days of War in Ukraine

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 263
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka’s worsening economic crisis

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 262
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The end of Denmark’s Inuit experiment

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 261
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

International Women’s Day: Gap between policies and realities on gender equality

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 260
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine Invasion: One Week Later

read more
Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 259
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine salami slicing and Canada’s freedom convoy protests

read more
Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 258
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unfreezing the Afghan assets, Tunisia’s judicial crisis and Libya’s new political deadlock

read more
Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 257
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Freedom convoy protests in Canada, and a de-escalation over Ukraine

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
February 2022 | IPRI # 256
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Coup in Burkina Faso: Five things to know

read more
Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 255
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of the coup in Myanmar, Taliban meetings in Oslo, and the Global hunger report

read more
Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 254
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Burkina Faso, Continuing violence in Yemen, and an ISIS attack in Syria

read more
Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 253
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Threat of War over Ukraine, a Syrian trial in Germany, and Protests in France

read more
Central Asia
January 2022 | IPRI # 252
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The unrest in Kazakhstan: Look beyond the trigger

read more
Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 251
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest and crackdown in Kazakhstan, Another jail term for Aung San Suu Kyi, Two years after Qasem Soleimani, and Canada's reconciliation with the indigenous people

read more
Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 250
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflicts in 2021 : Through Regional Prisms

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 249
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shreya Upadhyay

State of Peace and Conflict in North America in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 248
IPRI Briefs

Dr Aparaajita Pandey

State of Peace and Conflict in Latin America in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 247
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shaji S

State of Peace and Conflict in Africa in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 246
IPRI Briefs

Dr Stanly Johny

State of Peace and conflict in the Middle East in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 245
IPRI Briefs

Dr Athar Zafar

State of Peace and Conflict in Central Asia in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 244
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anshuman Behera

State of Peace and Conflict in South Asia in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 243
IPRI Briefs

Dr Bibhu Prasad Routray

State of Peace and Conflict in Southeast Asia in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 242
IPRI Briefs

Dr Sandip Kumar Mishra

State of Peace and Conflict in East Asia in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 241
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anand V

State of Peace and Conflict in China in 2021

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 240
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Top 15 Conflicts in 2021

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 239
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New reports on the Omicron threat, and lifting sanctions on humanitarian aid to Afghanistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 238
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

West warns Russia over Ukrainian aggression and South Korea and North Korean agree on end-of-war declaration in principle

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
December 2021 | IPRI # 237
IPRI Comments

Harshita Rathore

Famine in Ethiopia: The government's refusal to acknowledge, worsens the crisis

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 236
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict Weekly: 100th Issue

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 235
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest in the Solomon Islands, and the 12 million missing children in China

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 234
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-lockdown protests in Europe, Farmers' protests in India, and Continuing instability in Sudan

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 223
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Europe's other migrant crisis, and Protests in Cuba and Thailand

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 222
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The migrant threat to Europe from Belarus and Ceasefire with the TTP in Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 221
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of Ethiopian conflict and UK-France fishing row

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 220
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Sudan, Pressure on Myanmar's military regime, and the Migrant game by Belarus

read more
October 2021 | IPRI # 219
IPRI Comments

Vandana Mishra

The Texas abortion law: Five reasons why it is draconian

read more
Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 218
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

No honour in honour killing

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 217
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year after Samuel Paty's killing, Kidnapping in Haiti, and Instability in Sudan

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 216
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

ISIS violence in Afghanistan, and Targeted killings in J&K

read more
Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 215
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Rising child abuse in Pakistan: Five reasons why

read more
Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 214
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Hazara Persecution in Pakistan: No end in sight

read more
Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 213
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Talking to the Pakistani Taliban: What did Imran say? And what does it mean? Is the rest of Pakistan ready for the same?

read more
Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 212
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Protests in Gwadar: Who and Why

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 211
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Bolsonaro protests in Brazil, UK-France fishing row, Talks with the TTP in Pakistan, and the anti-abortion law protests in the US

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 210
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Chinese White Paper on Xinjiang, and the Haitian migrant crisis in the US

read more
NIAS-IPRI Brief
September 2021 | IPRI # 209
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s Stolen Future:Child abductions, lost innocence, and a glaring reflection of State failure in Nigeria

read more
Afghanistan
September 2021 | IPRI # 208
IPRI Comments

Vineeth Daniel Vinoy

Who is who in the interim Taliban government? And, what would be the government structure?

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 207
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Pride marches in Europe, Jail term for Hotel Rwanda hero, and continuing Houthi-led violence in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 206
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests in Europe and Brazil, and an impending humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan

read more
Latin America
September 2021 | IPRI # 205
IPRI Comments

Lokendra Sharma

Two months of Cuban protests: Is the ‘revolution’ ending?

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 204
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Texas' abortion ban, Return of the Thai protests, the Taliban government, and the Guinea coup

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 203
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US exit from Afghanistan, the Houthi violence in Yemen, and Hurricane Ida in the US

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 202
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Chaotic evacuation in Kabul, Crimea Summit on seven years of Russian occupation, anti-lockdown protests in Australia, and continuing kidnappings in Africa

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 201
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Return of the Taliban and the fall of Afghanistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 200
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests return to Thailand, Taliban gains in Afghanistan, Pandemic action triggers protests in Europe, and new Climate Change report warns Code-Red

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 199
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive, New Zealand's apology over the Pacific communities, Peru's new problem, and an inter-State clash in India's Northeast

read more
Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 198
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

France's anti-extremism bill, Canada's burning churches, and Tunisia's new political crisis

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 197
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Impending famine in Tigray, should make Ethiopia everyone's problem

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 196
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Too late and too little is Ethiopia's international problem

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 195
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

Africa's Ethiopia Problem

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 194
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia's Tigray problem is Tigray's Ethiopia problem

read more
Afghanistan
July 2021 | IPRI # 193
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Five reasons why Afghanistan is closer to a civil war

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 192
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Beyond the apology to Rwanda: In Africa, is France still a 'silent colonizer'?

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 191
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Migration in Africa: Origin, Drivers and Destinations

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 190
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa:Three reasons why

read more
NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 189
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Libya: A new unity government and rekindled hope, a decade after the fall of Gaddafi

read more
Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 188
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Germany, Wildfires in Siberia and the Pegasus Spyware

read more
Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 184
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-government protests in Cuba, Pro-Zuma protests in South Africa, and remembering the Srebrenica massacre

read more
Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 183
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive in Afghanistan, Protests in Colombia, and the Heat Wave 

read more
Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 182
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Ethiopia, Berlin Conference on Libya and the World Drug Report

read more
Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 181
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US Juneteenth, UN resolution on Myanmar and Global Peace Index

read more
Europe
June 2021 | IPRI # 180
IPRI Comments

Chetna Vinay Bhora

Spain, Morocco and the rise of rightwing politics in Europe over immigration

read more
Southeast Asia
June 2021 | IPRI # 179
IPRI Comments

Anju Joseph

Timor Leste: Instability continues, despite 19 years of independence

read more
Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 178
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Three new reports on Child labour, Ethiopia and Xinjiang, Tensions in Belfast, and the Suu Kyi trial

read more
Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 177
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The UN report on Taliban-al Qaeda links, Denmark on relocating refugee camps, Burkino Faso massacre, Arctic melt, and Afghan trilateral dialogue

read more
Israel-Palestine Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 176
IPRI Comments

Udbhav Krishna P

Revisiting the recent violence: Three takeaways

read more
Gender Peace and Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 175
IPRI Comments

Vibha Venugopal

The return of Taliban will be bad news for women

read more
Nepal
June 2021 | IPRI # 174
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Fresh election-call mean unending cycle of instability

read more
Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 173
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing protests in Colombia, another mass abduction in Nigeria, and a controversial election in Syria

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 172
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Israel, NLD ban in Myanmar and a new Belarus crisis

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 171
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Elusive ceasefire in Israel-Palestine conflict, a migration crisis in Spain, three weeks of protests in Colombia, and the rise of Ransomware reign

read more
The Maldives
May 2021 | IPRI # 170
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

The bomb attack on Mohamed Nasheed. Is it political or jihadist?

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 169
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Escalating Israel-Palestine violence, an attack and a ceasefire in Afghanistan, and the fallouts of Scotland election for the UK

read more
Australia's indigenous communities
May 2021 | IPRI # 168
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

The systemic oppression continues despite three decades of the Royal Commission report

read more
Africa
May 2021 | IPRI # 167
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa. Three reasons why

read more
Afghanistan 
May 2021 | IPRI # 166
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The US decision to withdraw is a call made too early. Three reasons why

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 165
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violent protests in Colombia, US troops withdrawal in Afghanistan, and the battle for Marib in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 164
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Israel-Syria missile strikes, Clashes in Somalia and Afghan meetings in Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 163
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

George Floyd murder trial, Fukushima water release controversy, anti-France protests in Pakistan, Report on the Rwandan genocide and another Loya Jirga in Afghanistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 162
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Riots in Northern Ireland, Sabotage on an Iranian nuclear facility, and a massacre in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 161
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Global gender gap report, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam talks failure, Maoist attack in India, Border tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the Security forces take control of Palma in Mozambique

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 160
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bloody Week in Myanmar, a Suicide attack in Indonesia and an Insurgency in Mozambique

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 159
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sanctions on China, Saudi Arabia ceasefire in Yemen, the UNHRC resolution on Sri Lanka, and a massacre in Niger

read more
Conflict Weekly #62
March 2021 | IPRI # 158
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Gender Protests in Australia, Expanding Violence in Myanmar and Anti-protests bill in the UK

read more
Conflict Weekly # 61
March 2021 | IPRI # 157
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Women’s Day, Swiss Referendum, Myanmar Violence, George Floyd Trial and Lebanon Protests

read more
Conflict Weekly #60
March 2021 | IPRI # 156
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

From Myanmar and Hong Kong in Asia to Nigeria in Africa: Seven conflicts this week

read more
Conflict Weekly # 59
February 2021 | IPRI # 155
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Protests in Myanmar, ‘Comfort Women’ issue in South Korea and Abductions in Nigeria

read more
Ethiopia
February 2021 | IPRI # 154
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Five fallouts of the military offensive in Tigray

read more
Afghanistan
February 2021 | IPRI # 153
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The recent surge in targeted killing vs the troops withdrawal

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 152
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

In Argentina, an extraordinarily progressive law on abortion brings the Conservatives to protest

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 151
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

In Poland, the protests against the abortion law feed into anti-government sentiments

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 150
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

In Honduras, a move towards a permanent ban on abortion laws

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 149
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

In Thailand, the new abortion law poses more questions

read more
Myanmar
February 2021 | IPRI # 148
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Civilian protests vs military: Three factors will decide the outcome in Myanmar

read more
Conflict Weekly # 58
February 2021 | IPRI # 147
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Separatism bill in France, Protests in Nepal against a gender-specific law, Surge in targetted killings in Afghanistan, and Instability continues in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly #57
February 2021 | IPRI # 146
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Coup protests in Myanmar, a new US strategy on Yemen, and the US-Iran differences on nuclear roadmap

read more
India and Sri Lanka
February 2021 | IPRI # 145
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan and Drorima Chatterjee

Five ways India can detangle the fishermen issue with Sri Lanka

read more
Conflict Weekly #56
February 2021 | IPRI # 144
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Myanmar and Protests in Russia

read more
Conflict Weekly #55
January 2021 | IPRI # 143
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers' protests in India, Vaccine Wars, another India-China border standoff, and Navalny's imprisonment

read more
Conflict Weekly # 54
January 2021 | IPRI # 142
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New President in the US, new Chinese Village in Arunachal Pradesh, new Israeli settlement in West Bank, and another massacre in Sudan

read more
Conflict Weekly # 53
January 2021 | IPRI # 141
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Trump impeached by the US House, Hazara miners buried in Pakistan, Farm laws stayed in India, and the Crisis escalation in CAR

read more
Conflict Weekly # 52
January 2021 | IPRI # 140
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

GCC lifts Qatar blockade, Iran decides to enrich uranium, Argentina legalizes abortion, French soldiers targeted in Mali, and the AFSPA extended in India's Northeast

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 139
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

The Middle East: The Abraham Accords may be the deal of the century, but comes with a heavy Palestinian cause  

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 138
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

France:  Needs to rethink  the state-religion relation in battling extremism

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 137
IPRI Comments

Teshu Singh

India and China: A tense border with compromise unlikely

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 136
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia: The conflict in Tigray and the regional fallouts

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 135
IPRI Comments

Kamna Tiwary

Europe: From anti-government protests in Belarus to ‘United for Abortion’ in Poland 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 134
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Brexit: A year of the UK-EU transition talks and finally, a Deal 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 133
IPRI Comments

Mallika Devi

Hong Kong: Slow Strangulation of Protests, Security Law and China's victory

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 132
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Thailand: For the pro-democracy protests, it is a long march ahead 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 131
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Nagorno-Karabakh: Rekindled fighting, Causalities and a Ceasefire

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 130
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Hot on the Conflict Trails: Top Ten Conflicts in 2020

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 129
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Boko Haram abductions in Nigeria, Violence in Afghanistan and Farmers' protest in India

read more
Gender Peace and Conflict
December 2020 | IPRI # 128
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

From Poland to India: More attacks on abortion rights coincide with the emergence of right

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 127
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers protest in India, Radicals target idols in Bangladesh, UK reaches out to the EU and Saudi Arabia to mend ties with Qatar

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 126
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An assassination in Iran, Massacre in Nigeria and Suicide bombings in Afghanistan

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 125
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Ensure the DDC elections are inclusive, free and fair

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 124
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Electoral violence in Africa, War crimes in Afghanistan, COVID's third global wave, and Protest escalation in Thailand

read more
Domestic turmoil and South Asia
November 2020 | IPRI # 123
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s 20-Amendment is more than what was bargained for

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 122
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US troops withdrawal, Violent protests in Thailand, Refugee crisis in Ethiopia, Anti-France protests in Pakistan and the Indo-Pak tensions along the LoC

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 121
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Alliance decides to fight the DDC elections together. The ballot may be thicker than principle

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 120
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A peace agreement in Nagorno-Karabakh and a brewing civil war in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 119
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

IS terror in Vienna and Kabul, new controversy along Nepal-China border, and a boundary dispute in India’s Northeast

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 118
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

The Friday Backgrounder: Union Government amends the land laws, and the Kashmiri Opposition protests. There is politics in both

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 117
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, rising gender violence shadows COVID-19 pandemic

read more
GLOBAL PROTESTS MOVEMENT
October 2020 | IPRI # 116
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Lebanon: One year of protests; it is more setbacks and little reforms

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 115
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, pandemic has eclipsed women’s role in peacebuilding

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 114
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The new demands within the State over the Official Language Act

read more
India's Northeast
October 2020 | IPRI # 113
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

The Naga Peace talks: Caught in its own rhetoric, NSCN(IM) will lose its stakes

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 112
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The Gupkar Declaration: Vociferous Valley and an Indifferent Jammu

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
October 2020 | IPRI # 111
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Flag, Constitution, Media Freedom and Local Elections

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 110
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Solidarity in France, Emergency withdrawn in Thailand, Terror tag removed in Sudan and Hunger in South Asia

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 109
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests against sexual violence in Bangladesh, One year after Xi-Modi summit, Assassination of a Deobandi scholar in Pakistan and continuing violence in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 108
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An Afghan woman nominated for the Nobel and a Dalit woman assaulted in India. External actors get involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 107
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, women peacebuilders need more than a seat at the table

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 106
IPRI Comments

Tamanna Khosla

In India, home has been the most violent place for women

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 105
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

In India, pandemic relegates women peacebuilders to the margins

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 104
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six million COVID cases in India, Abdullah Abdullah's visit to Pakistan, China's naval exercises in four seas, and the new tensions in Nagorno Karabakh

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 103
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Al Qaeda module in India, Naga Peace talks and the Polio problem in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 102
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Afghan summit in Doha, India-China Five Points agreement, Women protest in Pakistan, New amendment in Sri Lanka and the Bahrain-Israel rapprochement

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The Middle East
September 2020 | IPRI # 101
IPRI Comments

Samreen Wani

Lebanon: Can Macron's visit prevent the unravelling?

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Africa
September 2020 | IPRI # 100
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

In Sudan, the government signs an agreement with the rebels. However, there are serious challenges

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 99
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Targeted Violence in Pakistan, Protests in Hong Kong and the Charlie Hebdo Trial in France

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The Friday Backgrounder
September 2020 | IPRI # 98
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: The PDP meeting, Muharram clashes and the Kashmiri parties vis-à-vis Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 97
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti Racist Protests in the US and the Floods in Pakistan

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 96
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali and Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Sri Lanka: Election Analysis, Expectations from the Government, Challenges Ahead, & a road map for India

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 95
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Resolution is a good beginning. So is the NIA charge sheet on the Pulwama Attack.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 94
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Proposed amendment in Sri Lanka, Verdict on the gunman in New Zealand, Peace Conference in Myanmar and the Ceasefire troubles in Libya

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 93
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Baby steps taken. Now, time to introduce a few big-ticket items

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 92
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Further trouble to the Naga Peace Talks, Taliban attack on woman negotiator, Protests in Thailand, Belarus and Bolivia, Israel-UAE Rapprochement, and the Oil Spill in Mauritius

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Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 91
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Integration and Assimilation are not synonymous.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 90
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Release of Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, Troubles in Naga Peace Talks in India’s Northeast, and a deadly week in Lebanon

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Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 89
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: One year later, is it time to change gears?

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 88
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka Elections 2020 - A Curtain Raiser: Issues, Actors, and Challenges

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 87
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

J&K a year after 5 August 2019, Militant ambush in Manipur, Environmental protests in Northeast India, and the return of street protests in Iraq

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 86
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Omar Abdullah complains, there is no space for mainstream leaders. Should there be one?

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Conflict Weekly 28
July 2020 | IPRI # 85
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Bihar, Nepal and Bangladesh, Abduction of a journalist in Pakistan, Neutralization of militants in Srinagar and the UNAMA report on Afghanistan

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 84
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, 20 years later women still await the return of post war normalcy

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 83
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: After the Hurriyat, is the PDP relevant in Kashmir politics today?

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Conflict Weekly 27
July 2020 | IPRI # 82
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Devastating floods in Assam, and a mob Lynching of cattle smugglers along India-Bangladesh border

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 81
IPRI Comments

Mehjabin Ferdous

In Bangladesh, laws need to catch up with reality

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Conflict Weekly 26
July 2020 | IPRI # 80
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in India's Northeast, FGM ban in Sudan, the UN warning on Global Hunger & the Return of Global Protests

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 79
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Four years after Burhan Wani

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Conflict Weekly 25
July 2020 | IPRI # 78
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict and COVID in J&K, Dispute over constructing a temple in Islamabad, Return of the Indian fishermen into the Sri Lankan Waters, and the water conflict over River Nile in Africa

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 77
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

The Rise, Fall and Irrelevance of Geelani. And the Hurriyat

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Conflict Weekly 24
July 2020 | IPRI # 76
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Geelani's Exit and Continuing Violence in J&K, and the BLA attack on Pakistan stock exchange in Karachi

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June 2020 | IPRI # 75
IPRI Comments

Sudip Kumar Kundu

Cyclone Amphan: West Bengal, Odisha limp back to a distorted normalcy

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June 2020 | IPRI # 74
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

An olive branch to the PTM in Pakistan: Will the PTI heed to the Pashtun rights movement

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Conflict Weekly 23
June 2020 | IPRI # 73
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Baloch Disappearance issue returns, Nepal tightens Citizenship rules, and Egypt enters the conflict in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 22
June 2020 | IPRI # 72
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence escalates along the India-China border, Cartographic tensions over India-Nepal border, Gas explosion in Assam and Deadly attacks by the Boko Haram in Nigeria

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Conflict Weekly 21
June 2020 | IPRI # 71
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Echoes of Black Lives Matter, Violence in Kashmir Valley, Rohingyas in the deep blue sea, One year of Hong Kong protests, Conflict in Libya and the human-wildlife conflict in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly 20
June 2020 | IPRI # 70
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A week of violence in the US, Afghanistan and Africa, Urban drivers of political violence, and anti-racism protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 19
May 2020 | IPRI # 69
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal, Ceasefire in Afghanistan, Indo-Nepal border dispute in Kalapani, Honour Killing in Pakistan, New protests  in Hong Kong & the Anti-lockdown protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 18
May 2020 | IPRI # 68
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Kalapani dispute in India-Nepal border, Migrants exodus in India, Continuing violence in Balochistan and KP

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Conflict Weekly 17
May 2020 | IPRI # 67
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The return of Hong Kong Protests, a new Ceasefire in Myanmar, China-Australia Tensions on COVID & Trade, and the Al Qaeda-Islamic State clashes in Africa

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Conflict Weekly 16
May 2020 | IPRI # 66
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Binge-fighting in Kashmir Valley, SIGAR report on Afghanistan, Killing of a PTM leader in Pakistan, the US Religious Freedom watchlist, and Haftar's ceasefire call in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 15
April 2020 | IPRI # 65
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire and Self Rule in Yemen, Syrian war trial in Germany, SIPRI annual report on military spending, and Low civilian casualties in Afghanistan 

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 64
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

Healing needs Forgiveness, Accountability, Responsibility and Justice

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 63
IPRI Comments

La Toya Waha

Have the Islamists Won? 

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Conflict Weekly 14
April 2020 | IPRI # 62
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A new wave of arrests in Hong Kong, One year after Easter Sunday attacks in Sri Lanka, ISIS violence in Mozambique, and the coming global Food Crisis

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 61
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Jharkhand: Proactive Judiciary, Strong Civil Society Role, Rural Vigilantes

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 60
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Bihar as Late Entrant: No Prompt Action, Punitive Measures, Migrant Crisis 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 59
IPRI Comments

Anshuman Behera

Odisha’s Three Principles: Prepare for the Worst, Prepare Early, Prevent Loss of Lives

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 58
IPRI Comments

Niharika Sharma

New Delhi as Hotspot: Border Sealing, Curbing Fake News, Proactive leadership

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 57
IPRI Comments

Vaishali Handique

Northeast India: Civil Society in Unison, Media against Racism, Government’s Timely Preparedness 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 56
IPRI Comments

Shyam Hari P

Kerala: Past Lessons and War-Footing response by the administration

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 55
IPRI Comments

Shilajit Sengupta

West Bengal: Proactive Local Leadership, Early Lockdown and Decentralised Action

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 54
IPRI Comments

P Harini Sha

Tamil Nadu’s Three Pronged Approach: Delay Virus Spread, Community Preparedness, Welfare Schemes 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 53
IPRI Comments

Hrudaya C Kamasani

Andhra Pradesh: Early course correction, Independent leadership and Targeted Mitigation  

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 52
IPRI Comments

Sanduni Atapattu

Preventing hatred and suspicion would be a bigger struggle

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 51
IPRI Comments

Chavindi Weerawansha

A majority in the minority community suffers, for the action of a few

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 50
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

The Cardinal sermons for peace, with a message to forgive

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 49
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Who and Why of the Perpetrators

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 48
IPRI Comments

Natasha Fernando

In retrospect, where did we go wrong?

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 47
IPRI Comments

Ruwanthi Jayasekara

Build the power of Co-existence, Trust, Gender and Awareness

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 46
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

New ethnic faultlines at macro and micro levels

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 45
IPRI Comments

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera

A year has gone, but the pain has not vanished

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 44
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, it is a struggle for the women out of the patriarchal shadows

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 43
IPRI Comments

Jenice Jean Goveas

In India, the glass is half full for the women

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 42
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, there is no going back for the women

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Conflict Weekly 13
April 2020 | IPRI # 41
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Executing Mujib's killer in Bangladesh, Continuing conflicts in Myanmar, Questioning Government's sincerity in Naga Peace Deal, Releasing Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, and a report on damming the Mekong river by China

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Conflict Weekly 12
April 2020 | IPRI # 40
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Globally, Coronavirus increases Domestic Violence, deflates Global Protests, threatens Indigenous Communities and imperils the migrants. In South Asia, two reports question the Assam Foreign Tribunal and the Afghan Peace deal

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Afghanistan
April 2020 | IPRI # 39
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

One month after the deal with the Taliban: Problems Four, Progress None

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Conflict Weekly 11
April 2020 | IPRI # 38
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Releasing a former soldier convicted of a war crime in Sri Lanka, Deepening of internal conflicts in Myanmar and the Taliban’s Deal is a smokescreen in Afghanistan

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Report Review
March 2020 | IPRI # 37
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

Pakistan: Decline in Terrorism

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Conflict Weekly 10
March 2020 | IPRI # 36
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

More violence in Afghanistan, Naxal ambush in India, Federal-Provincial differences in Pakistan's Corona fight, and a new report on the impact of CoronaVirus on Conflicts

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Conflict Weekly 09
March 2020 | IPRI # 35
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The CoronaVirus: South Asia copes, China stabilises, Europe bleeds and the US wakes up finally

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Conflict Weekly 08
March 2020 | IPRI # 34
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Triumphant Women's march across Pakistan, Anti-CAA Protests in Dhaka,  Two Presidents in Afghanistan, and Turkey-Russia Ceasefire in Syria

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Conflict Weekly 07
March 2020 | IPRI # 33
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Aurat March in Pakistan, US-Taliban Deal in Doha, Anti-CAA protest in Meghalaya, Sri Lanka’s withdrawal from the UNCHCR Resolution, and the problems of ceasefire in Syria and Libya 

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Conflict Weekly 06
February 2020 | IPRI # 32
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Seven Days of Peace in Afghanistan, Violence in Delhi, Setback to Peace Talks on Libya and the Ceasefire in Gaza

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Conflict Weekly 05
February 2020 | IPRI # 31
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Afghan Election Results, US-Taliban Deal, Hafiz Saeed Conviction, Quetta Suicide Attack, Assam Accord, Mexico Femicide and the Climate Change impact on Bird Species

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Conflict Weekly 04
February 2020 | IPRI # 30
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka drops Tamil anthem, Assam looks for a new census for the indigenous Muslim population, Bangladesh faces a Rohingya boat tragedy and Israel witnesses resurgence of violence post-Trump deal

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Conflict Weekly 03
February 2020 | IPRI # 29
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Violence in Afghanistan, Bodo Peace Accord in Northeast India, Attack on the anti-CAA protesters in Delhi, and Trump's Middle East Peace Plan

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Conflict Weekly 02
January 2020 | IPRI # 28
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bangladesh and ICJ's Rohingya Verdict, Taliban and Afghan Peace, Surrenders in India's Northeast, New government in Lebanon and the Berlin summit on Libya

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Conflict Weekly 01
January 2020 | IPRI # 27
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Nile River Agreement, Tehran Protests, Syrians meet in Berlin, Honduran Caravans in Mexico, Taliban's ceasefire offer, Quetta Suicide attack, Supreme court verdict on J&K and the Brus Agreement in Tripura

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Myanmar
October 2019 | IPRI # 26
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Will prosecuting Suu Kyi resolve the Rohingya problem?

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Climate Change
October 2019 | IPRI # 25
IPRI Comments

Lakshman Chakravarthy N & Rashmi Ramesh

Four Actors, No Action

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From Okjökull to OK:
September 2019 | IPRI # 24
IPRI Comments

Rashmi Ramesh

Death of a Glacier in Iceland

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The Hong Kong Protests:
August 2019 | IPRI # 23
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Re-defining mass mobilization

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The Hong Kong Protest:
August 2019 | IPRI # 22
IPRI Comments

Parikshith Pradeep

Who Wants What?

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Africa
December 2020 | IPRI # 6
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ballots and Bloodshed: Trends of electoral violence in Africa

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Myanmar
March 2019 | IPRI # 5
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

The Other Conflict in Rakhine State

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West Asia
February 2019 | IPRI # 4
IPRI Comments

Seetha Lakshmi Dinesh Iyer

Yemen: Will Sa'nna fall?

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China and Islam
February 2019 | IPRI # 3
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudhan

Sinicizing the Minorities

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Terrorism
January 2019 | IPRI # 2
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Maghreb: What makes al Shahab Resilient?

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Global Politics
January 2019 | IPRI # 1
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Myanmar: Will 2019 be better for the Rohingya?

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