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Conflict Weekly #122, 04 May 2022, Vol.3, No.5
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IPRI # 274, 6 May 2022

Conflict Weekly
Mali-France tensions and anti-UK protests in the Virgin Islands

  IPRI Team

Anu Maria and Padmashree Anandhan 


Mali terminates defence accord with France over security violations
In the news
On 3 May, the Mali government announced the termination of defence ties with France, condemning multiple violations of its sovereignty by the French troops. In a statement, the military spokesperson, colonel Abdoulaye Maiga said: "For some time now, the government of the Republic of Mali notes with regret a profound deterioration in military cooperation with France." The accords that Mali ended were the framework for France's intervention in Mali, which was signed on 1 August 2014 to fight against Islamist militancy.
He cited multiple instances of French forces violating the country's air space. He also referred to France's decision on 3 June 2021 to end the joint military operation and on 17 February 2022 to withdraw its troops. A French foreign ministry spokesperson called the junta's decision "unjustified". He said: "France considers that this decision is unjustified and absolutely contests any violation of the bilateral legal framework".

The announcement came following the Mali junta accused the French army of "spying" and violating its airspace after Paris released drone footage of mass burial by "Russian mercenaries" at a former French military base. With the end of the agreement, France and European forces can no longer enter and move freely within the country.

Issues at large
First, Mali-France defence ties. France's defence ties with Mali began in January 2013 as Operation Several, helping the government in their fight to clear Islamic militants from their urban stronghold in northern Mali. Turning into a prolonged conflict, Operation Several was transformed to Operation Barkhane in August 2014. The objective was to provide continued counterterrorism support to the G5 Sahel member states. Approximately, 2,400 of France's 4,300 troops deployed in Sahel were stationed in Mali scattered between the large base at Gao, others at Kidal, Timbuktu, Tessalit and Gossi. However, in February, France withdrew its troops from Mali following the breakdown of its relations with the country.

Second, growing tensions between France and Mali. Tensions between France and the military government increased since the coup in August 2020, reaching their peak with the second coup in May 2021. The relationship worsened as the junta resisted international pressure to oblige at the given time, returning to a democratic civilian rule. Besides, France opposed the junta's efforts to negotiate peace with the jihadist groups. Whereas Mali publicly accused France of training "terrorist groups" in the region and expelled the French ambassador. The growing presence of the Kremlin-linked security firm Wagner of deploying in Mali fuelled the tensions. These major disagreements, coupled with alleged abuses by the French troops, the failure of Operation Barkhane with further deterioration of the security situation in Sahel, France, witnessed a popular drawback.

Third, Russian involvement. The military junta has built closer links with Russia after its relations severed with the West, particularly France. Russia's presence in Mali positions itself to fill the power vacuum as French and European forces withdraw. Nearly 1000 Russian officials and instructors from the mercenary, the Wagnor group, are deployed. The government claims that the Russians are military instructors helping to restore order. However, the United Nations has accused the Wagnor of human rights violations, including indiscriminate killing alongside the regional forces. The suspected role of Russian mercenaries participating in an operation with Mali's army in March, in which about 300 civilians were allegedly killed over five days has raised concerns.

In perspective
First, the end of a long term relationship points to France's reluctance towards Mali's governance crisis, despite the rhetoric calling for democratization and Mali's resistance towards France's overwhelmingly militarized approach and involvement in its internal affairs.
Second, taking advantage of widespread anti-French sentiments and lack of trust in state institutions, the transitional military government seems to have captured public support that it is better capable than France and democratically elected officials.
Third, for Mali, the Russian involvement introduces a partner capable of fighting the jihadists without binding to the Western demands to respect human rights and pursue democratic governance. The new partnership, not concerned itself with trivialities like democracy, is likely to make the democratic transition difficult.


The Virgin Islands: Protests against a direct rule by the UK

In the news
On 28 April, the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) reported the arrest of the premier of the British Virgin Islands in Miami under the suspect of money laundering and scheme to import drugs. Following the arrest, a report was released on 29 April by the governor, Queen Elizabeth's representative, John Rankin, which stated that millions of dollars of state funds were found to be mishandled by the politicians. Apart from this it also found dishonesty with regards to sale of public property and exploitation of appointments. It said: "the corruption, abuse of office, and other serious dishonesty," was found in the country's governance.

On 29 April, the report mandated for the suspension of the constitution, dissolution of the government and proposed for direct ruling of the British Virgin Islands from the UK. According to Rankin: "He notes that the people of the BVI deserve better, and that the UK government owes them an obligation to protect them from such abuses and assist them to achieve their aspirations for self-government as a modern democratic state." On the same the UK foreign secretary Liz Truss said: "shows clearly that substantial legislative and constitutional change is required."

On 2 May, an investigation was launched, which was led by the UK judge Sir Gary Hickinbottom. After looking into the case of corruption, he recommended for the Island to be administered from London for next two years.

On 3 May, the proposal from UK to impose a direct rule, triggered demonstrations outside the Government House. The rejection comes due to the colonial link of the region and the UK. The slogans held by the protestors said: "No to British rule, and no going back to chains." One of the protestor voiced out: "How can you speak for us if you have not had a conversation with us, the people? It is possible for us to condemn the actions of corrupt leaders and also believe that we can be authorities on good governance as well."

Issues at large
First, the Island's link with the UK. The link between England and the British Virgin Islands dates back to 1672 before signing of the Treaty of Westminster. Where the British took control of the Islands from the Dutch, which slowly led to slavery. The increase in the slaves, led to mass revolts resulting in abolition of slavery and end to British colonialism. Later, the Island was brought under new constitution, followed by first elections in 1967, which established the self-governance to a limited extent and further expanded in 2007. Since then, the island territories came under a single realm of the Crown. These Islands are majorly operated for offshore financial reasons and each of overseas territories constitutional status differs as per the British Nationality Act 1981. A white paper on the constitutional position released on 2012 stated: "powers are devolved to the elected governments of the Territories to the maximum extent possible consistent with the UK retaining those powers necessary to discharge its sovereign responsibilities."

Second, the report by the UK government. The UK published the Hickinbottom report found the principles of good governance, transparency, and rule of law was ignored. It also included gaining contract, grants of assistance, disposing of Crown land, and misuse of enormous amount of public money. It also found evidence of "chronic lack of governance," dishonesty, and gross deficiencies. It posed four recommendations based on the evidence: suspension of parts of the constitution, which looks into the assignment of elected representatives; carrying out a constitutional review through setting up a commission to put the mechanisms back in place;  to bring transparency in government decisions for good governance; and an "independent and impartial" auditing in areas of decision making and expenditure.

Third, the response of the Islanders. At the state level, the acting premier has raised concerns about UK's plan to impose direct rule. This means there will be no more elected representatives to represent the people and territory. With no elected representative brings the challenge of understanding and bringing reforms for the benefit of the public. At the spiritual level, the Baptists have taken the front in organizing the protests, bringing the religious unity amongst the people to go against UK's proposal. At the civilian level, people gathered to protest against removing their rights to choose their representative. They demand a new elected leader and elections to take place.

In perspective
The question of democracy vs dictatorship. The Island territories were never granted complete self-governance. The constitution signed in 2007 to self-govern contains the provisions that allow the UK to take over in circumstances of power manipulation, resource exploitation, and bad governance. Although the direct rule is seen as an oppressive act by the people, UK's colonial link ensured to install democracy in the Island. This can be observed in the Turks and Caicos Islands case, where the direct rule was imposed over evidence of corruption in 2009. After a three-year term, the islanders were allowed to rule back and later in 2015, a new parliament was set up. The British Virgin Islands might go through the same process, which will benefit the lifestyle of people in the long term.


Also, from around the World
By Padmashree Anandhan, Sruthi Sadhasivam, Vijay Anand Panigrahi, Lavanya Ravi, and Sejal Sharma
 
East and Southeast Asia
China: UN representative urge for development in developing countries 
On 27 April, in a General Assembly meeting held on peacebuilding finance, deputy permanent representative of China to the UN, Dai Bing highlighted the need for sustainable development for longer peace and stressed on the development of those countries involved in the peacebuilding process. To increase the attention towards sustainable development, Bing urged for directing of resources in "poverty eradication, infrastructure, education, health, and vocational skills training." Apart from this he asked the contributors to take prime responsibility in boosting developing countries to grow faster.

China: UK Foreign Secretary warns to follow international norms 
On 28 April, UK foreign secretary, Liz Truss, keeping the issue of Taiwan on the front warned China to adhere to the international norms. Recalling the economic hardship faced by Russia post invading Ukraine, she signalled that China would face a similar situation. The UK also sees soft power and strategic alliances as ways to keep China away from Taiwan. Amongst the developing countries, China is observed to be the rising power in terms of military and economy. On the same Truss said: "They will not continue to rise if they do not play by the rules. China needs trade with the G7. We (the Group of Seven) represent around half of the global economy. And we have choices." In response, Taiwan's Foreign Ministry appreciated the remarks made by Truss and said that Taiwan would continue to expand its cooperation with the UK.

China: Senior colonel opposes the sailing of the US warship
On 26 April, the US announced the sailing of its navy guided-missile destroyer into the Taiwan Strait, as a showcase of US's efforts toward free Indo-Pacific. On 27 April, in response, China's senior colonel Shi Yi called the move as "publicly hyped." He remarked that the moves by the US sent "wrong signals" which undermines the security of Taiwan Strait. He added: "We will by no means allow--and strongly oppose--any interference by exterior forces."

Hong Kong: Jail term increased for student found violating detention 
On 29 April, under the national security law, the Hong Kong court increased the jail term on student Lui Sai-yu by five years who was previously under detention for posting in Telegram calling for independence from China. Lui was charged for "inciting session" in 2021 and has been under detention from September 2020. After finding of "extendable police baton, two military knives and protective gear," by the police in recent raids has led to increase in the jail term from three years and eight months to five years.

Hong Kong: Press freedom rank fell by 68 ranks 
On 3 May, In the Reporters Without Borders 2022 World Press Freedom Index, the Asian financial center ranked 148, which was down by 68 ranks. The reason behind the fall in rank of Hong Kong's media was due to shutdown of its two independent news outlets, Apple Daily and Stand News. As per the index, since 1997 many media organizations had come under the control of China's government.

Malaysia: ASEAN countries asked to associate with Myanmar's NUG
On 4 May, Malaysian foreign minister Saifuddin Abdullah presented a proposal urging the other ASEAN countries to associate with the National Unity Government (NUG) of Myanmar. The minister asked the countries to follow Malaysia's suit and support his request for the bloc to engage with the NUG, especially on matters of humanitarian relief. Myanmar's foreign ministry called this move "irresponsible and reckless" and that this proposal would cause unrest in their country. In response, the ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights chairman, Charles Santiago, asked the countries to neglect the junta's opinion on this matter.

Myanmar: Aung San Suu Kyi imprisoned for five years prison sentence
On 27 April, Myanmar court alleged Aung San Suu Kyi for engaging in bribery of USD 600,000 cash and goldbars. Aung San Suu Kyi who has been under house arrest since 2021 was found guilty under corruption. The court gave a verdict imprisoning her for five years, if all the charges are taken into consideration, Suu Kyi will be sentenced for more than 190 years.

South Asia
Sri Lanka: Alleged corruption stains the construction of Hambantota General Hospital
On 2 May, ABC Media uncovered corruption and illegal dealings in a "personal protective equipment contract" of the Australian medical company during the construction of a hospital in Hambantota. Canberra-based Aspen Medical Company was put under investigation for alleged money laundering in relation to the construction of Hambantota General Hospital in Sri Lanka. Aspen's first transaction of USD 2.1 million was with Sabre Vision Holding, a British Virgin Island registered company, owned by Nimal Perera of Sri Lanka who is believed to be closely related to the Rajapaksa. Aspen Medical has so far denied any investigative requests from a legal entity so far but is open to any such inquiry.

Sri Lanka: More financial assistance from India to meet the crisis
On 3 May, Minister of power put forward a proposal to import fuel from India using a shot-term loan worth USD 200 million. Sri Lanka's Cabinet approved the proposal to grant the contract to Indian Oil Corporation. Since 2022, India has provided financial assistance to Sri Lanka in various lines of credit to help mitigate from the economic crisis. Recently it also extended a "currency swap" worth USD 400 million from April to July. Apart from this India has also given a credit line worth billion dollar for essential commodities and has supported in deferring repayment of USD 1 billion from the Asian Clearing Union.

India: Sri Lankan fishermen detained for illegal fishing
On 2 May, six fishermen from Sri Lanka were held by the Indian Coast Guard Ship (ICGS) for crossing the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL). The fishermen were caught with their fishing boat Takeshi on the Indian side of the IMBL by the ICGS Ameya. The ICGS has also found Takeshi in violation of the Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of Fishing by Foreign Vessels) Act, 1981, which forbids fishermen from other countries to fish in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone. For further investigation, the fishermen along with their boat are now under the custody of Nagappattinam Marine Police Station.

India: Violence in Patiala over the anti-Khalistan March
On 29 April, three people were injured as violence broke out in Patiala during an anti-Khalistan march. Following the clash between two groups, three top police officers were removed by the Punjab government owing to their inability to pacify the situation. Mobile internet and SMS services were also ceased temporarily by the government. Patiala Police have so far registered six FIRs and arrested three people related to the violence. The communal situation in the country remains tense as on 3 May, the Aurangabad police also registered an FIR against Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) chief Raj Thackeray. He has been charged with 'intent to cause rioting' for his instigating speech. Thackeray reportedly urged people to play Hanuman Chalisa on the loudspeaker at the same time when the Muslims read their namaaz out loud on the speakers.

India: 150th rank in World Press Freedom Index
On 3 May, India dropped another eight ranks to 150th in the World Press Freedom Index report released by Reporters Sans Frontières (Reporters Without Borders). The report released on World Press Freedom Day showed how the Indian neighbours except for Nepal further degraded in ranking in the tally. In the report Pakistan was placed at 157th position, Sri Lanka at 146th, Bangladesh at 162nd, and Maynmar at the 176th position. Press Club of India responded to the report stating how the journalists in the country were being put in chains through flimsy reasons and draconian laws that threaten their freedom to report the truth. 

Central Asia, Middle East, and Africa
Kazakhstan: President approves a bill to cease social media platforms
On 3 May, the Kazakh president, Qasym-Zhomart Toqaev signed a bill that would enable the government to shut down social media outlets to protect children from cyberbullying. The law mandates the social-media networks and messaging services to register in Kazakhstan and requires them to establish offices to acquire permission to operate in the region. The government authorities have been accused of deliberately using obscure language in the legislation to suppress dissent. The Freedom House, in terms of internet freedom in the world, accorded a 'not free' status to the country. The country witnessed several rallies opposing the legislation. 

Armenia: Normalises ties with Turkey 
On 3 May, Armenia and Turkey decided to normalize their relations without conditions. In a statement, Armenia's foreign ministry said: "Possible steps to reach tangible process in that matter were discussed. The sides confirmed their readiness to carry out the process further without preliminary conditions." The ministry believes that the progress in the relationship would foster the reopening of their shared border. Armenian and Turkish envoys, Ruben Rubinian and Serdar Kilic committed to the joint goal of reaching a complete supervision of relations between the two countries.

Armenia: Protests against concessions over Nagorno-Karabakh
On 1 May, thousands rallied in the Armenian capital, Yerevan's central Square of France to caution the government regarding any compromises over Karabakh to Azerbaijan. The parliament vice speaker and opposition leader, Ishkhan Sagatelian, said: "Any political status of Karabakh within Azerbaijan is unacceptable to us. Pashinian has betrayed people's trust and must go." He called all civilians to strike and asked students to not attend their classes. The opposition comes in the wake of Pashinian's public statement accepting the provisions of the draft bilateral peace treaty discussed during the Brussels talks.

Iraq: Yazidis flee the violence in Sinjar region 
On 3 May, the Yazidi minority group in Northern Iraq was recorded fleeing in mass numbers. The recent violence between the Yazidi Sinjar Resistance Units (YBS) and the Iraq army in the region of Sinjar has resulted in the deaths of 12 Yazidis and one Iraqi soldier. Till now 710 families or 4083 people have been displaced and have received asylum in the Dohuk province of Kurdistan. Yazidi's minister Mahma Khalilm said: "the presence of Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) in Sinjar was attacking the Iraqi army and the citizens by using them as human shields". The YBS which recently aligned itself to the Kurdish Democratic Party in Iraq's Parliament aims to protect the region from ISIS and the PKK. It demands for an autonomous Kurdish territory in Northern Iraq. 

Iraq: Refinery in Erbil catches fire after missile attack 
On 2 May, a missile attack targeted the KAR oil refinery in the Erbil region of Iraq. Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) stated "six missiles landed on the outer fence of the refinery and the missiles were fired from the town of Bartella in the neighbouring province of Nineveh". The missiles didn't cause any casualties despite landing in the region's most populated city. A previous attack on the same refinery was witnessed on 6 April. Iraq's prime minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi said it was a "cowardly attack" and the army will pursue the perpetrators. 

Syria: ISIL attack in iftar gathering kills seven 
On 25 April, ISIL gunmen fired on an iftar gathering at Deir Az Zor province and killed seven people and wounded four. Among the deceased was the former spokesperson of the Syrian Democratic Forces, Nouri Hamish. The gathering was hosted at his house in the town of Abu Khashab. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights noted ISIL attacks in Syria to have increased with 23 attacks carried out in the last 11 days.

Qatar: Three workers die while constructing FIFA stadiums 
On 2 May, Qatar witnessed the death of three workers in the construction process of football stadiums. At the global conference of Milken Institute in Los Angeles, FIFA president Gianni Infantino was asked if FIFA would make "any sort of commitment" to help the families of workers who in Qatar. Infantino evaded the question and stated: "migrant workers gain pride from hard work; thanks to FIFA, thanks to football, we have been able to address the status of all the 1.5 million workers working in Qatar". The officials of Qatar deny the deaths reported of migrant workers. Qatar has introduced reforms in its employment laws after becoming the FIFA host.

Somalia: Al-Shabaab attacks African Union troops and kill three
On 31 April, Al- Shabaab terrorist group attacked the African Union peacekeeping mission in the Shabelle region in central Somalia. Three civilians died and five others were injured in the violence. Witnesses noted that it was a predawn attack and that the group had used two helicopters with gunfire targeting the military base in El Baraf. It took complete control of the base after defeating the peacekeeping forces. So far, the group has been targeting to overthrow the government and impose its interpretation of Islamic Sharia law on the Somali people.

Central African Republic: Wagner group involved in atrocities against civilians
On 31 April, a report released by Human Rights Watch stated that Russian mercenaries, especially the Wagner Group has been involved in torture and killing of civilians in the Central African Republic over the last three years. Last year, 12 unarmed men were killed at a roadblock by mercenaries. Wagner Group was also implicated in the massacre of 300-500 civilians in central Mali in late March. The role of Russian military contractors in Africa is on an unprecedented rise. Russia is aiming to expand its political influence to gain more revenue from Africa's natural resources by utilizing mercenaries. 

Senegal: UN secretary general warns triple crisis in Africa 
On 1 May, UN secretary general Antonio Guterres visited Senegal. In a meeting with Senegal's president Macky Sall, he discussed the impact of the Ukraine war on Africa. The Ukraine war has been driving up food prices all over the world and it could push the people of Africa into extreme hunger leading to political instability and violence. The Ukraine war adds another dimension to the already existing crises of climate change, covid-19 pandemic and ethnic conflicts in Africa, especially the Sahel region. Global Crisis Reponse Group on Food, Energy and Finance (GCRG) has termed this phenomenon a 'cascading crisis.' The UN estimates a quarter of a billion people could be pushed into extreme poverty this year because of the Ukraine war.

Europe and the Americas
Spain: Pegasus spyware detected in the prime minister's phone
On 2 May, Reuters reported that the mobile phones of Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez and defence minister Margarita Robles were infected with the Pegasus spyware. According to the government minister for the presidency Felix Bolanos said, the spyware was detected in May 2022 and at least one data leak had occurred. It is suspected to be the work of external non-official bodies. The High court has taken charge of the case. This issue may have a link with the members of the Catalan separatist movement, who were also the targets of Pegasus. The EU has called for a ban on Pegasus as there were allegations of it being abused to spy on rights activists, journalists and politicians. 

Ukraine: Attacks on and evacuations from Mariupol
On 30 April, president spoke about how around 100 people have been evacuated from the region safely. This has been possible because there were two days of ceasefire in the region. The evacuees will be brought to Zaporizhzhia. This news has been confirmed by the UN and the Red Cross who are also helping in coordinating the evacuation efforts. On 01 April, Ukraine said that another round of evacuation might be possible under the given circumstances. They advised the people seeking evacuation to gather at the meeting point at 1600 hrs. A Reuters photographer reported that 14 more people from Mariupol arrived at a temporary accommodation centre, after leaving the Azovstal steel plant region.

Russia: Defence Ministry reports to have hit fuel depots in Ukraine
On 30 April, Russia's defence ministry said that four of their missiles have hit ammunition and fuel depots in Ukraine. They also mentioned that their artillery units had hit 389 Ukrainian targets overnight, which included 35 control points, 15 arms and ammunition depots, and several concentrations of Ukraine's troops and equipment. In an online post, the ministry also said that an air force strike has killed 200 of Ukraine's troops and destroyed 23 armoured vehicles.
On 01 May, Russia's defence ministry provided an update about successfully striking a depot stocked with weapons supplied to Ukraine by the United States and European countries.

Serbia: Showcases its Chinese and Russian imported weaponry 
On 30 April, Serbia displayed the weapons at the Batajnica military airfield near Belgrade. Serbia imported defence systems from Russia, China, the US and France. It showed off its defence to the media and the public. Even though Serbia wants to join NATO, they also have a long relationship with Russia. Most of the defence system that Serbia uses now is that of ex-Soviet technology. Most of the European nations especially Germany warned Serbia to align its interests with the EU if Serbia wants to become its member. Serbia is seen showing signs of distancing itself from Russia and China by buying weaponry from the UK and France. 

France and Germany: May Day demonstrations held across Europe turns violent
On 1 May, traditional May Day demonstrations were held across Europe, while France and Germany witnessed political and violent protests. On the eve of the peaceful March in France, a small group of people dressed in black, called "black bloc" anarchists, shattered windows of businesses and attacked cash dispensers while lighting dumpsters on fire. Simultaneously, a feminist march, known as Walpurgisnacht, started their rallies in Berlin, with a group of 2,500 marching to "take back the night." According to the organizers, the rally's purpose was to reclaim the night for women, lesbians, intersex, and transgender people. Thousands more took to the streets around the country to protest various issues, including the conflict in Ukraine, the rising cost of living, workers' rights, rental regulations, and plans to increase military spending substantially.

Poland: Sends 240 soviet model tanks to Ukraine
On 29 April, Poland sent 240 soviet styled tanks to Ukraine which will help last for two tank brigades. Apart from this T-72 tanks were provided along with self-propelled howitzers, grad rocket launchers and other weaponry from Poland. The continued supply heavy equipment by Poland shows the increase in pace to help out Ukraine. Other European countries, Czech Republic, Germany, and US has also sent its T-72 tanks, 50 Flakpanzer Gepard antiaircraft cannon tanks and USD 33 billion as a military aid.

Europe: EU's border agency accused of illegal pushbacks of asylum seekers
On 28 April, a new investigation revealed that the EU's border and coast guard agency- Frontex, was involved in the illegal pushback of 957 asylum seekers in the Aegean Sea. The investigation was jointly led by Lighthouse Reports, Der Spiegel, SRF, Republik, and Le Monde. The agency's internal incident report database, Jora, revealed to have logged observations of asylum seeker pushbacks in the Aegean Sea between March 2020 and September 2021. Authorities classified these incidents as "prevention of departure." This is defined in the Frontex standards as an occurrence in which migrants from non-European countries are intercepted in its territorial seas and are returned to their point of origin. 

Russia: Ukraine prepare to impose war crime charges on military personnel
On 26 April, Ukraine's prosecutor general's office said that they were preparing to bring war crimes charges against at least seven Russian military personnel. Among them are also three pilots suspected of bombing civilian settlements in the Sumy and Kharkiv regions. They said that the two of the other individuals include two rocket launcher operators, who allegedly shelled settlements in the Kharkiv region and two army servicemen who are suspected of murdering a Kharkiv resident and raping his wife. The prosecutors' office also said that these individuals have been notified of the investigations and some were being held as captive, while for others charges were being prepared in absentia.

Moldova: Security Council meet to look into recent blasts
On 26 April, Moldova's president, Maia Sandu held a meeting between the Supreme Security Council to discuss on the blasts that occurred in Transnistria. Two explosions were observed to have attacked with "rocket-propelled grenades." Post the fall of the Soviet, Transnistria has remained independent but has not gained any international recognition. As reported in RIA, Transnistria had found three infiltrators from Ukraine on the recent grenade attack in security headquarters. It named the act as "terrorist act," and observed it as a way to instigate the country to launch war in the Ukraine conflict. On the same, Sandu said: "internal differences between various groups in Transnistria that have an interest in destabilizing the situation."

The US: LinkedIn agrees to settle on wage discrimination charges 
On 3 May, the career networking service LinkedIn agreed to pay USD 1.8 million in back wages to settle a gender discrimination lawsuit brought by US labour investigators. The company was accused of systemic pay discrimination in comparable jobs that affected nearly 700 women from 2015 to 2017. The case was brought to light through a routine evaluation by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, however, LinkedIn denied the alleged discrimination. In a statement, it said: "while we have agreed to settle this matter, we do not agree with the government's claims; LinkedIn pays and has paid its employees fairly and equitably when comparing similar work." 

The US: Military reports fatal helicopter crash last year caused by mechanical failure 
On 3 May, a command investigation last month reported a new development in last year's deadly naval helicopter crash off the coast of Southern California. The aircraft belonged to the Navy's Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron Eight. The military report claimed the crash that killed five crew members was caused by mechanical failure and not pilot error as suggested by initial investigations. A damper hose failed on the MH-60S Seahawk during flight, which caused the aircraft to crash on an aircraft carrier and fall into the sea. In effect, five sailors on the US Abraham Lincoln were injured. 

The US: Uproar caused due to Supreme Court ruling of overturning abortion law 
On 3 May, a leaked document labelled "First Draft" written by Justice Samuel Alito called the historic 1973 Roe v Wade ruling that legalized abortion across the US, inherently wrong. The leak has stirred public anticipation suggesting 36 million US women losing their legal rights to abortion if the ruling is struck down. The ruling was brought to light as Mississippi had filed to overturn the ruling with the final decision expected in late June or July. Subsequently, this incident has renewed the debate between pro and anti-abortion activists, with several states already passing trigger laws that would ban abortion if the ruling is struck down. President Biden and Vice President Harris have called out the discriminatory move as an attack on the rights of the individual with broader implications, if the decision of the court stays. 

Latin America: Joint report states high Covid-19 mortality rates triggered by inequality 
On 27 April, a report by Amnesty International and the Centre for Economic and Social Rights found that the high levels of mortality rate in Latin America and the Caribbean during the pandemic were a consequence of the rampant inequality in the region. Since 2020 up to February this year, more than 1.6 million people have died due to covid related causes, accounting to one-third of global cases. The report suggested low levels of public health expenditure, social security and taxes as the core reasons for the disproportionate numbers. Prosperous countries like Chile were urged to increase public spending to reform the dismal conditions. 

Latin America: Lower economic growth expected due to the Ukrainian war 
On 29 April, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) predicted low levels of economic growth for the region as a result of the war in Ukraine. The UN-ECLAC is a regional commission to encourages economic cooperation. The report stated a 1.8 per cent growth for this year against the initial January forecast of 2.1 per cent which was adjusted due to factors such as heightened inflation, increasing financial volatility and costs. High rates of inflation and higher unemployment rates are anticipated for the rest of the year.


About the authors 
Anu Maria Joseph is a postgraduate scholar in Madras Christian College, Chennai. Padmashree Anandhan is a Project Associates at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Sejal Sharma and Vijay Anand Panigrahi are postgraduate scholars at Pondicherry University, Pondicherry. Lavanya Ravi and Sruthi Sadhasivam are postgraduate scholars at Christ (Deemed to be University), Bangalore.

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The 2014 Gaza Ceasefire: A Stopgap to Peace dividend

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 266
IPRI Briefs

Dincy Adlakha

The 1999 Lome Peace Agreement: Issues and failed aspirations

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 265
IPRI Briefs

Anju C Joseph

Ceasefire in Moro Conflict: No lasting solution in sight

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 264
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

30 days of War in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 263
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka’s worsening economic crisis

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 262
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The end of Denmark’s Inuit experiment

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 261
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

International Women’s Day: Gap between policies and realities on gender equality

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 260
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine Invasion: One Week Later

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 259
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine salami slicing and Canada’s freedom convoy protests

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 258
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unfreezing the Afghan assets, Tunisia’s judicial crisis and Libya’s new political deadlock

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 257
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Freedom convoy protests in Canada, and a de-escalation over Ukraine

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NIAS Africa Monitor
February 2022 | IPRI # 256
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Coup in Burkina Faso: Five things to know

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 255
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of the coup in Myanmar, Taliban meetings in Oslo, and the Global hunger report

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 254
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Burkina Faso, Continuing violence in Yemen, and an ISIS attack in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 253
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Threat of War over Ukraine, a Syrian trial in Germany, and Protests in France

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Central Asia
January 2022 | IPRI # 252
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The unrest in Kazakhstan: Look beyond the trigger

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 251
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest and crackdown in Kazakhstan, Another jail term for Aung San Suu Kyi, Two years after Qasem Soleimani, and Canada's reconciliation with the indigenous people

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 250
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflicts in 2021 : Through Regional Prisms

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 249
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shreya Upadhyay

State of Peace and Conflict in North America in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 248
IPRI Briefs

Dr Aparaajita Pandey

State of Peace and Conflict in Latin America in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 247
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shaji S

State of Peace and Conflict in Africa in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 246
IPRI Briefs

Dr Stanly Johny

State of Peace and conflict in the Middle East in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 245
IPRI Briefs

Dr Athar Zafar

State of Peace and Conflict in Central Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 244
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anshuman Behera

State of Peace and Conflict in South Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 243
IPRI Briefs

Dr Bibhu Prasad Routray

State of Peace and Conflict in Southeast Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 242
IPRI Briefs

Dr Sandip Kumar Mishra

State of Peace and Conflict in East Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 241
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anand V

State of Peace and Conflict in China in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 240
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Top 15 Conflicts in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 239
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New reports on the Omicron threat, and lifting sanctions on humanitarian aid to Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 238
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

West warns Russia over Ukrainian aggression and South Korea and North Korean agree on end-of-war declaration in principle

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NIAS Africa Monitor
December 2021 | IPRI # 237
IPRI Comments

Harshita Rathore

Famine in Ethiopia: The government's refusal to acknowledge, worsens the crisis

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 236
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict Weekly: 100th Issue

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 235
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest in the Solomon Islands, and the 12 million missing children in China

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 234
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-lockdown protests in Europe, Farmers' protests in India, and Continuing instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 223
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Europe's other migrant crisis, and Protests in Cuba and Thailand

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 222
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The migrant threat to Europe from Belarus and Ceasefire with the TTP in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 221
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of Ethiopian conflict and UK-France fishing row

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 220
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Sudan, Pressure on Myanmar's military regime, and the Migrant game by Belarus

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October 2021 | IPRI # 219
IPRI Comments

Vandana Mishra

The Texas abortion law: Five reasons why it is draconian

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 218
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

No honour in honour killing

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 217
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year after Samuel Paty's killing, Kidnapping in Haiti, and Instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 216
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

ISIS violence in Afghanistan, and Targeted killings in J&K

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 215
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Rising child abuse in Pakistan: Five reasons why

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 214
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Hazara Persecution in Pakistan: No end in sight

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 213
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Talking to the Pakistani Taliban: What did Imran say? And what does it mean? Is the rest of Pakistan ready for the same?

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 212
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Protests in Gwadar: Who and Why

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 211
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Bolsonaro protests in Brazil, UK-France fishing row, Talks with the TTP in Pakistan, and the anti-abortion law protests in the US

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 210
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Chinese White Paper on Xinjiang, and the Haitian migrant crisis in the US

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
September 2021 | IPRI # 209
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s Stolen Future:Child abductions, lost innocence, and a glaring reflection of State failure in Nigeria

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Afghanistan
September 2021 | IPRI # 208
IPRI Comments

Vineeth Daniel Vinoy

Who is who in the interim Taliban government? And, what would be the government structure?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 207
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Pride marches in Europe, Jail term for Hotel Rwanda hero, and continuing Houthi-led violence in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 206
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests in Europe and Brazil, and an impending humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan

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Latin America
September 2021 | IPRI # 205
IPRI Comments

Lokendra Sharma

Two months of Cuban protests: Is the ‘revolution’ ending?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 204
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Texas' abortion ban, Return of the Thai protests, the Taliban government, and the Guinea coup

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 203
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US exit from Afghanistan, the Houthi violence in Yemen, and Hurricane Ida in the US

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 202
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Chaotic evacuation in Kabul, Crimea Summit on seven years of Russian occupation, anti-lockdown protests in Australia, and continuing kidnappings in Africa

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 201
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Return of the Taliban and the fall of Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 200
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests return to Thailand, Taliban gains in Afghanistan, Pandemic action triggers protests in Europe, and new Climate Change report warns Code-Red

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 199
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive, New Zealand's apology over the Pacific communities, Peru's new problem, and an inter-State clash in India's Northeast

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 198
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

France's anti-extremism bill, Canada's burning churches, and Tunisia's new political crisis

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 197
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Impending famine in Tigray, should make Ethiopia everyone's problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 196
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Too late and too little is Ethiopia's international problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 195
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

Africa's Ethiopia Problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 194
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia's Tigray problem is Tigray's Ethiopia problem

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Afghanistan
July 2021 | IPRI # 193
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Five reasons why Afghanistan is closer to a civil war

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 192
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Beyond the apology to Rwanda: In Africa, is France still a 'silent colonizer'?

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 191
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Migration in Africa: Origin, Drivers and Destinations

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 190
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa:Three reasons why

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 189
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Libya: A new unity government and rekindled hope, a decade after the fall of Gaddafi

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 188
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Germany, Wildfires in Siberia and the Pegasus Spyware

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 184
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-government protests in Cuba, Pro-Zuma protests in South Africa, and remembering the Srebrenica massacre

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 183
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive in Afghanistan, Protests in Colombia, and the Heat Wave 

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 182
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Ethiopia, Berlin Conference on Libya and the World Drug Report

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 181
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US Juneteenth, UN resolution on Myanmar and Global Peace Index

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Europe
June 2021 | IPRI # 180
IPRI Comments

Chetna Vinay Bhora

Spain, Morocco and the rise of rightwing politics in Europe over immigration

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Southeast Asia
June 2021 | IPRI # 179
IPRI Comments

Anju Joseph

Timor Leste: Instability continues, despite 19 years of independence

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 178
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Three new reports on Child labour, Ethiopia and Xinjiang, Tensions in Belfast, and the Suu Kyi trial

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 177
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The UN report on Taliban-al Qaeda links, Denmark on relocating refugee camps, Burkino Faso massacre, Arctic melt, and Afghan trilateral dialogue

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Israel-Palestine Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 176
IPRI Comments

Udbhav Krishna P

Revisiting the recent violence: Three takeaways

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Gender Peace and Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 175
IPRI Comments

Vibha Venugopal

The return of Taliban will be bad news for women

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Nepal
June 2021 | IPRI # 174
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Fresh election-call mean unending cycle of instability

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 173
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing protests in Colombia, another mass abduction in Nigeria, and a controversial election in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 172
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Israel, NLD ban in Myanmar and a new Belarus crisis

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 171
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Elusive ceasefire in Israel-Palestine conflict, a migration crisis in Spain, three weeks of protests in Colombia, and the rise of Ransomware reign

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The Maldives
May 2021 | IPRI # 170
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

The bomb attack on Mohamed Nasheed. Is it political or jihadist?

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 169
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Escalating Israel-Palestine violence, an attack and a ceasefire in Afghanistan, and the fallouts of Scotland election for the UK

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Australia's indigenous communities
May 2021 | IPRI # 168
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

The systemic oppression continues despite three decades of the Royal Commission report

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Africa
May 2021 | IPRI # 167
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa. Three reasons why

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Afghanistan 
May 2021 | IPRI # 166
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The US decision to withdraw is a call made too early. Three reasons why

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 165
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violent protests in Colombia, US troops withdrawal in Afghanistan, and the battle for Marib in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 164
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Israel-Syria missile strikes, Clashes in Somalia and Afghan meetings in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 163
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

George Floyd murder trial, Fukushima water release controversy, anti-France protests in Pakistan, Report on the Rwandan genocide and another Loya Jirga in Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 162
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Riots in Northern Ireland, Sabotage on an Iranian nuclear facility, and a massacre in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 161
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Global gender gap report, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam talks failure, Maoist attack in India, Border tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the Security forces take control of Palma in Mozambique

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Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 160
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bloody Week in Myanmar, a Suicide attack in Indonesia and an Insurgency in Mozambique

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Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 159
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sanctions on China, Saudi Arabia ceasefire in Yemen, the UNHRC resolution on Sri Lanka, and a massacre in Niger

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Conflict Weekly #62
March 2021 | IPRI # 158
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Gender Protests in Australia, Expanding Violence in Myanmar and Anti-protests bill in the UK

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Conflict Weekly # 61
March 2021 | IPRI # 157
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Women’s Day, Swiss Referendum, Myanmar Violence, George Floyd Trial and Lebanon Protests

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Conflict Weekly #60
March 2021 | IPRI # 156
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

From Myanmar and Hong Kong in Asia to Nigeria in Africa: Seven conflicts this week

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Conflict Weekly # 59
February 2021 | IPRI # 155
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Protests in Myanmar, ‘Comfort Women’ issue in South Korea and Abductions in Nigeria

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Ethiopia
February 2021 | IPRI # 154
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Five fallouts of the military offensive in Tigray

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Afghanistan
February 2021 | IPRI # 153
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The recent surge in targeted killing vs the troops withdrawal

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 152
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

In Argentina, an extraordinarily progressive law on abortion brings the Conservatives to protest

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 151
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

In Poland, the protests against the abortion law feed into anti-government sentiments

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 150
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

In Honduras, a move towards a permanent ban on abortion laws

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 149
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

In Thailand, the new abortion law poses more questions

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Myanmar
February 2021 | IPRI # 148
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Civilian protests vs military: Three factors will decide the outcome in Myanmar

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Conflict Weekly # 58
February 2021 | IPRI # 147
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Separatism bill in France, Protests in Nepal against a gender-specific law, Surge in targetted killings in Afghanistan, and Instability continues in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly #57
February 2021 | IPRI # 146
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Coup protests in Myanmar, a new US strategy on Yemen, and the US-Iran differences on nuclear roadmap

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India and Sri Lanka
February 2021 | IPRI # 145
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan and Drorima Chatterjee

Five ways India can detangle the fishermen issue with Sri Lanka

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Conflict Weekly #56
February 2021 | IPRI # 144
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Myanmar and Protests in Russia

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Conflict Weekly #55
January 2021 | IPRI # 143
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers' protests in India, Vaccine Wars, another India-China border standoff, and Navalny's imprisonment

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Conflict Weekly # 54
January 2021 | IPRI # 142
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New President in the US, new Chinese Village in Arunachal Pradesh, new Israeli settlement in West Bank, and another massacre in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly # 53
January 2021 | IPRI # 141
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Trump impeached by the US House, Hazara miners buried in Pakistan, Farm laws stayed in India, and the Crisis escalation in CAR

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Conflict Weekly # 52
January 2021 | IPRI # 140
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

GCC lifts Qatar blockade, Iran decides to enrich uranium, Argentina legalizes abortion, French soldiers targeted in Mali, and the AFSPA extended in India's Northeast

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 139
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

The Middle East: The Abraham Accords may be the deal of the century, but comes with a heavy Palestinian cause  

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 138
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

France:  Needs to rethink  the state-religion relation in battling extremism

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 137
IPRI Comments

Teshu Singh

India and China: A tense border with compromise unlikely

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 136
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia: The conflict in Tigray and the regional fallouts

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 135
IPRI Comments

Kamna Tiwary

Europe: From anti-government protests in Belarus to ‘United for Abortion’ in Poland 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 134
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Brexit: A year of the UK-EU transition talks and finally, a Deal 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 133
IPRI Comments

Mallika Devi

Hong Kong: Slow Strangulation of Protests, Security Law and China's victory

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 132
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Thailand: For the pro-democracy protests, it is a long march ahead 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 131
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Nagorno-Karabakh: Rekindled fighting, Causalities and a Ceasefire

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 130
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Hot on the Conflict Trails: Top Ten Conflicts in 2020

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 129
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Boko Haram abductions in Nigeria, Violence in Afghanistan and Farmers' protest in India

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Gender Peace and Conflict
December 2020 | IPRI # 128
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

From Poland to India: More attacks on abortion rights coincide with the emergence of right

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 127
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers protest in India, Radicals target idols in Bangladesh, UK reaches out to the EU and Saudi Arabia to mend ties with Qatar

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 126
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An assassination in Iran, Massacre in Nigeria and Suicide bombings in Afghanistan

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 125
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Ensure the DDC elections are inclusive, free and fair

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Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 124
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Electoral violence in Africa, War crimes in Afghanistan, COVID's third global wave, and Protest escalation in Thailand

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Domestic turmoil and South Asia
November 2020 | IPRI # 123
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s 20-Amendment is more than what was bargained for

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Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 122
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US troops withdrawal, Violent protests in Thailand, Refugee crisis in Ethiopia, Anti-France protests in Pakistan and the Indo-Pak tensions along the LoC

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 121
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Alliance decides to fight the DDC elections together. The ballot may be thicker than principle

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 120
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A peace agreement in Nagorno-Karabakh and a brewing civil war in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 119
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

IS terror in Vienna and Kabul, new controversy along Nepal-China border, and a boundary dispute in India’s Northeast

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 118
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

The Friday Backgrounder: Union Government amends the land laws, and the Kashmiri Opposition protests. There is politics in both

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 117
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, rising gender violence shadows COVID-19 pandemic

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GLOBAL PROTESTS MOVEMENT
October 2020 | IPRI # 116
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Lebanon: One year of protests; it is more setbacks and little reforms

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 115
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, pandemic has eclipsed women’s role in peacebuilding

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 114
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The new demands within the State over the Official Language Act

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India's Northeast
October 2020 | IPRI # 113
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

The Naga Peace talks: Caught in its own rhetoric, NSCN(IM) will lose its stakes

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 112
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The Gupkar Declaration: Vociferous Valley and an Indifferent Jammu

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The Friday Backgrounder
October 2020 | IPRI # 111
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Flag, Constitution, Media Freedom and Local Elections

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 110
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Solidarity in France, Emergency withdrawn in Thailand, Terror tag removed in Sudan and Hunger in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 109
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests against sexual violence in Bangladesh, One year after Xi-Modi summit, Assassination of a Deobandi scholar in Pakistan and continuing violence in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 108
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An Afghan woman nominated for the Nobel and a Dalit woman assaulted in India. External actors get involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 107
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, women peacebuilders need more than a seat at the table

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 106
IPRI Comments

Tamanna Khosla

In India, home has been the most violent place for women

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 105
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

In India, pandemic relegates women peacebuilders to the margins

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 104
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six million COVID cases in India, Abdullah Abdullah's visit to Pakistan, China's naval exercises in four seas, and the new tensions in Nagorno Karabakh

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 103
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Al Qaeda module in India, Naga Peace talks and the Polio problem in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 102
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Afghan summit in Doha, India-China Five Points agreement, Women protest in Pakistan, New amendment in Sri Lanka and the Bahrain-Israel rapprochement

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The Middle East
September 2020 | IPRI # 101
IPRI Comments

Samreen Wani

Lebanon: Can Macron's visit prevent the unravelling?

read more
Africa
September 2020 | IPRI # 100
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

In Sudan, the government signs an agreement with the rebels. However, there are serious challenges

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 99
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Targeted Violence in Pakistan, Protests in Hong Kong and the Charlie Hebdo Trial in France

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
September 2020 | IPRI # 98
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: The PDP meeting, Muharram clashes and the Kashmiri parties vis-à-vis Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 97
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti Racist Protests in the US and the Floods in Pakistan

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 96
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali and Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Sri Lanka: Election Analysis, Expectations from the Government, Challenges Ahead, & a road map for India

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 95
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Resolution is a good beginning. So is the NIA charge sheet on the Pulwama Attack.

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 94
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Proposed amendment in Sri Lanka, Verdict on the gunman in New Zealand, Peace Conference in Myanmar and the Ceasefire troubles in Libya

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 93
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Baby steps taken. Now, time to introduce a few big-ticket items

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 92
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Further trouble to the Naga Peace Talks, Taliban attack on woman negotiator, Protests in Thailand, Belarus and Bolivia, Israel-UAE Rapprochement, and the Oil Spill in Mauritius

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Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 91
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Integration and Assimilation are not synonymous.

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 90
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Release of Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, Troubles in Naga Peace Talks in India’s Northeast, and a deadly week in Lebanon

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Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 89
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: One year later, is it time to change gears?

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 88
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka Elections 2020 - A Curtain Raiser: Issues, Actors, and Challenges

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 87
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

J&K a year after 5 August 2019, Militant ambush in Manipur, Environmental protests in Northeast India, and the return of street protests in Iraq

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 86
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Omar Abdullah complains, there is no space for mainstream leaders. Should there be one?

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Conflict Weekly 28
July 2020 | IPRI # 85
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Bihar, Nepal and Bangladesh, Abduction of a journalist in Pakistan, Neutralization of militants in Srinagar and the UNAMA report on Afghanistan

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 84
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, 20 years later women still await the return of post war normalcy

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 83
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: After the Hurriyat, is the PDP relevant in Kashmir politics today?

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Conflict Weekly 27
July 2020 | IPRI # 82
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Devastating floods in Assam, and a mob Lynching of cattle smugglers along India-Bangladesh border

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 81
IPRI Comments

Mehjabin Ferdous

In Bangladesh, laws need to catch up with reality

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Conflict Weekly 26
July 2020 | IPRI # 80
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in India's Northeast, FGM ban in Sudan, the UN warning on Global Hunger & the Return of Global Protests

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 79
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Four years after Burhan Wani

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Conflict Weekly 25
July 2020 | IPRI # 78
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict and COVID in J&K, Dispute over constructing a temple in Islamabad, Return of the Indian fishermen into the Sri Lankan Waters, and the water conflict over River Nile in Africa

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 77
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

The Rise, Fall and Irrelevance of Geelani. And the Hurriyat

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Conflict Weekly 24
July 2020 | IPRI # 76
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Geelani's Exit and Continuing Violence in J&K, and the BLA attack on Pakistan stock exchange in Karachi

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June 2020 | IPRI # 75
IPRI Comments

Sudip Kumar Kundu

Cyclone Amphan: West Bengal, Odisha limp back to a distorted normalcy

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June 2020 | IPRI # 74
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

An olive branch to the PTM in Pakistan: Will the PTI heed to the Pashtun rights movement

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Conflict Weekly 23
June 2020 | IPRI # 73
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Baloch Disappearance issue returns, Nepal tightens Citizenship rules, and Egypt enters the conflict in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 22
June 2020 | IPRI # 72
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence escalates along the India-China border, Cartographic tensions over India-Nepal border, Gas explosion in Assam and Deadly attacks by the Boko Haram in Nigeria

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Conflict Weekly 21
June 2020 | IPRI # 71
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Echoes of Black Lives Matter, Violence in Kashmir Valley, Rohingyas in the deep blue sea, One year of Hong Kong protests, Conflict in Libya and the human-wildlife conflict in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly 20
June 2020 | IPRI # 70
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A week of violence in the US, Afghanistan and Africa, Urban drivers of political violence, and anti-racism protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 19
May 2020 | IPRI # 69
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal, Ceasefire in Afghanistan, Indo-Nepal border dispute in Kalapani, Honour Killing in Pakistan, New protests  in Hong Kong & the Anti-lockdown protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 18
May 2020 | IPRI # 68
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Kalapani dispute in India-Nepal border, Migrants exodus in India, Continuing violence in Balochistan and KP

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Conflict Weekly 17
May 2020 | IPRI # 67
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The return of Hong Kong Protests, a new Ceasefire in Myanmar, China-Australia Tensions on COVID & Trade, and the Al Qaeda-Islamic State clashes in Africa

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Conflict Weekly 16
May 2020 | IPRI # 66
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Binge-fighting in Kashmir Valley, SIGAR report on Afghanistan, Killing of a PTM leader in Pakistan, the US Religious Freedom watchlist, and Haftar's ceasefire call in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 15
April 2020 | IPRI # 65
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire and Self Rule in Yemen, Syrian war trial in Germany, SIPRI annual report on military spending, and Low civilian casualties in Afghanistan 

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 64
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

Healing needs Forgiveness, Accountability, Responsibility and Justice

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 63
IPRI Comments

La Toya Waha

Have the Islamists Won? 

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Conflict Weekly 14
April 2020 | IPRI # 62
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A new wave of arrests in Hong Kong, One year after Easter Sunday attacks in Sri Lanka, ISIS violence in Mozambique, and the coming global Food Crisis

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 61
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Jharkhand: Proactive Judiciary, Strong Civil Society Role, Rural Vigilantes

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 60
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Bihar as Late Entrant: No Prompt Action, Punitive Measures, Migrant Crisis 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 59
IPRI Comments

Anshuman Behera

Odisha’s Three Principles: Prepare for the Worst, Prepare Early, Prevent Loss of Lives

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 58
IPRI Comments

Niharika Sharma

New Delhi as Hotspot: Border Sealing, Curbing Fake News, Proactive leadership

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 57
IPRI Comments

Vaishali Handique

Northeast India: Civil Society in Unison, Media against Racism, Government’s Timely Preparedness 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 56
IPRI Comments

Shyam Hari P

Kerala: Past Lessons and War-Footing response by the administration

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 55
IPRI Comments

Shilajit Sengupta

West Bengal: Proactive Local Leadership, Early Lockdown and Decentralised Action

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 54
IPRI Comments

P Harini Sha

Tamil Nadu’s Three Pronged Approach: Delay Virus Spread, Community Preparedness, Welfare Schemes 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 53
IPRI Comments

Hrudaya C Kamasani

Andhra Pradesh: Early course correction, Independent leadership and Targeted Mitigation  

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 52
IPRI Comments

Sanduni Atapattu

Preventing hatred and suspicion would be a bigger struggle

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 51
IPRI Comments

Chavindi Weerawansha

A majority in the minority community suffers, for the action of a few

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 50
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

The Cardinal sermons for peace, with a message to forgive

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 49
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Who and Why of the Perpetrators

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 48
IPRI Comments

Natasha Fernando

In retrospect, where did we go wrong?

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 47
IPRI Comments

Ruwanthi Jayasekara

Build the power of Co-existence, Trust, Gender and Awareness

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 46
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

New ethnic faultlines at macro and micro levels

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 45
IPRI Comments

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera

A year has gone, but the pain has not vanished

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 44
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, it is a struggle for the women out of the patriarchal shadows

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 43
IPRI Comments

Jenice Jean Goveas

In India, the glass is half full for the women

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 42
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, there is no going back for the women

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Conflict Weekly 13
April 2020 | IPRI # 41
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Executing Mujib's killer in Bangladesh, Continuing conflicts in Myanmar, Questioning Government's sincerity in Naga Peace Deal, Releasing Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, and a report on damming the Mekong river by China

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Conflict Weekly 12
April 2020 | IPRI # 40
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Globally, Coronavirus increases Domestic Violence, deflates Global Protests, threatens Indigenous Communities and imperils the migrants. In South Asia, two reports question the Assam Foreign Tribunal and the Afghan Peace deal

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Afghanistan
April 2020 | IPRI # 39
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

One month after the deal with the Taliban: Problems Four, Progress None

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Conflict Weekly 11
April 2020 | IPRI # 38
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Releasing a former soldier convicted of a war crime in Sri Lanka, Deepening of internal conflicts in Myanmar and the Taliban’s Deal is a smokescreen in Afghanistan

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Report Review
March 2020 | IPRI # 37
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

Pakistan: Decline in Terrorism

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Conflict Weekly 10
March 2020 | IPRI # 36
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

More violence in Afghanistan, Naxal ambush in India, Federal-Provincial differences in Pakistan's Corona fight, and a new report on the impact of CoronaVirus on Conflicts

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Conflict Weekly 09
March 2020 | IPRI # 35
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The CoronaVirus: South Asia copes, China stabilises, Europe bleeds and the US wakes up finally

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Conflict Weekly 08
March 2020 | IPRI # 34
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Triumphant Women's march across Pakistan, Anti-CAA Protests in Dhaka,  Two Presidents in Afghanistan, and Turkey-Russia Ceasefire in Syria

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Conflict Weekly 07
March 2020 | IPRI # 33
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Aurat March in Pakistan, US-Taliban Deal in Doha, Anti-CAA protest in Meghalaya, Sri Lanka’s withdrawal from the UNCHCR Resolution, and the problems of ceasefire in Syria and Libya 

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Conflict Weekly 06
February 2020 | IPRI # 32
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Seven Days of Peace in Afghanistan, Violence in Delhi, Setback to Peace Talks on Libya and the Ceasefire in Gaza

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Conflict Weekly 05
February 2020 | IPRI # 31
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Afghan Election Results, US-Taliban Deal, Hafiz Saeed Conviction, Quetta Suicide Attack, Assam Accord, Mexico Femicide and the Climate Change impact on Bird Species

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Conflict Weekly 04
February 2020 | IPRI # 30
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka drops Tamil anthem, Assam looks for a new census for the indigenous Muslim population, Bangladesh faces a Rohingya boat tragedy and Israel witnesses resurgence of violence post-Trump deal

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Conflict Weekly 03
February 2020 | IPRI # 29
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Violence in Afghanistan, Bodo Peace Accord in Northeast India, Attack on the anti-CAA protesters in Delhi, and Trump's Middle East Peace Plan

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Conflict Weekly 02
January 2020 | IPRI # 28
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bangladesh and ICJ's Rohingya Verdict, Taliban and Afghan Peace, Surrenders in India's Northeast, New government in Lebanon and the Berlin summit on Libya

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Conflict Weekly 01
January 2020 | IPRI # 27
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Nile River Agreement, Tehran Protests, Syrians meet in Berlin, Honduran Caravans in Mexico, Taliban's ceasefire offer, Quetta Suicide attack, Supreme court verdict on J&K and the Brus Agreement in Tripura

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Myanmar
October 2019 | IPRI # 26
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Will prosecuting Suu Kyi resolve the Rohingya problem?

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Climate Change
October 2019 | IPRI # 25
IPRI Comments

Lakshman Chakravarthy N & Rashmi Ramesh

Four Actors, No Action

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From Okjökull to OK:
September 2019 | IPRI # 24
IPRI Comments

Rashmi Ramesh

Death of a Glacier in Iceland

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The Hong Kong Protests:
August 2019 | IPRI # 23
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Re-defining mass mobilization

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The Hong Kong Protest:
August 2019 | IPRI # 22
IPRI Comments

Parikshith Pradeep

Who Wants What?

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Africa
December 2020 | IPRI # 6
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ballots and Bloodshed: Trends of electoral violence in Africa

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Myanmar
March 2019 | IPRI # 5
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

The Other Conflict in Rakhine State

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West Asia
February 2019 | IPRI # 4
IPRI Comments

Seetha Lakshmi Dinesh Iyer

Yemen: Will Sa'nna fall?

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China and Islam
February 2019 | IPRI # 3
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudhan

Sinicizing the Minorities

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Terrorism
January 2019 | IPRI # 2
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Maghreb: What makes al Shahab Resilient?

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Global Politics
January 2019 | IPRI # 1
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Myanmar: Will 2019 be better for the Rohingya?

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