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   International Peace Research Initiative (IPRI)
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Conflict Weekly #135, 4 August 2022, Vol.3, No.18
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IPRI # 297, 4 August 2022

Conflict Weekly
Zawahiri's killing, Pope's apology to the indigenous people in Canada, Iraq's political crisis, and Senegal's disputed elections

  IPRI Team

Abigail Miriam Fernandez, Avishka Ashok, Rashmi Ramesh and Anu Maria Joseph


Afghanistan: Al Qaeda leader Ayman al Zawahiri killed in US airstrike 
In the news
On 1 August, president Joe Biden announced that Al Qaeda Ayman al-Zawahiri was killed in a counterterrorism operation by the CIA in Kabul's Sherpur area. He said: "Now justice has been delivered, and this terrorist leader is no more. No matter how long it takes, no matter where you hide, if you are a threat to our people, the United States will find you and take you out." Further, he claimed that intelligence had located Zawahiri's family in Kabul earlier in 2022 and that the airstrike was carried out over the weekend after he approved the "carefully planned" operation a week ago "..after being advised conditions were optimal."

According to officials, the operation to kill Zawahiri had been planned for months. After receiving intelligence from several sources on Zawahiri, the CIA tracked his movements until they received authorization for the strike, and targeted him on a balcony with two Hellfire missiles on 30 July. The drone strike is the first known US intervention inside Afghanistan since its withdrawal in August 2021.

Following the announcement, Taliban chief spokesperson Zabihullah Mujahid confirmed the attack in Kabul and condemned it as a "violation of international principles." He said: "Such actions are a repetition of the failed experiences of the past 20 years and are against the interests of the US, Afghanistan, and the region." However, the statement did not name Zawahiri.

Issues at large
First, Zawahiri's killing and Al Qaeda. Zawahiri, AlQaeda's second leader was an Egyptian doctor who merged his militant group with Al Qaeda in the 1990s. Since then, he was considered Al Qaeda's intellectual pillar. After Osama Bin Laden was killed, he took over as the leader. Although Al Qaeda is a highly splintered group with branches and affiliates operating from Africa to Asia, Zawahiri's killing is another blow to the group as it would need to adjust to the loss of another leader. Additionally, the group is likely to see a leadership crisis as senior leader Saif al-Adel who is the next in line is based in Iran, causing affiliates to question his credibility.

Second, the nexus between the Taliban and Al Qaeda. The presence of Zawahiri in one of Kabul's busiest areas highlights the nexus between the group and the Taliban. A UNSC report published in July 2022 cites that the Al Qaeda leadership remains close to the Taliban. The report adds that the group enjoys greater freedom in Afghanistan under Taliban rule but confined itself to advising and supporting the de facto authorities. Additionally, the report states that Al Qaeda's senior leadership enjoyed a more settled period in early 2022, with leaders like Zawahiri being able to communicate freely since the Taliban's takeover.

Third, the US-Taliban deal. Under the Doha Agreement, the Taliban promised to prevent Afghanistan from being used as a haven for Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups. However, the US has been wary of the Taliban's commitment despite its several claims that it is adhering to the deal. Zawahri's killing questions the Taliban's commitment to the deal but also highlights the US commitment to continue counterterrorism operations despite not having a military presence in Afghanistan.

In perspective
First, the threat posed by Al Qaeda. It is unlikely that there will be any immediate consolation for Al Qaeda following the killing of Zawahiri. This development would push the group to further splinter and divide over who would lead the group next.

Second, Al Qaeda and the Taliban relationship. The nexus between Al-Qaeda and the Taliban would change depending on how the details of this incident unfold. As of now, the Taliban has treaded strategically to keep away criticism from the US and kept Al Qaeda at bay by not making any claims on the development. However, the group would likely continue to remain in Afghanistan as long as the Taliban is in power.

Third, the US's counterterrorism operations. The killing of Zawahiri highlights the US ability to still successfully carry out counterterrorism operations in Afghanistan. However, the issues become sensitive as indiscriminatory airstrikes could result in retaliation from the Taliban.


Canada: Pope's visit signifies a growing awareness of the violation of indigenous communities
In the news
On 29 July, Pope Francis ended the "Pilgrimage of penance" in Canada after making multiple stops in cities across the country, meeting indigenous communities, and apologizing for the atrocities committed by the Roman Catholic church in former residential schools.

On 25 July, the Pope arrived at the Lac Ste. Anne pilgrimage site outside Edmonton after a member of the Kehewin Cree Nation delivered a speech about the violence on indigenous communities in Canada. The Pope then apologised to the indigenous people for the horrifying abuses committed toward as many as 1,50,000 children from the community.

The Pope said: "I am sorry. I ask forgiveness, in particular, for the ways in which many members of the Church and of religious communities cooperated, not least through their indifference, in projects of cultural destruction and forced assimilation promoted by the governments of that time, which culminated in the system of residential schools."

The Pope acknowledged that his apology would not mean closure to the issue and must be perceived as the beginning to repairing the past. He called for a serious investigation into the school's actions and assisted the survivors in healing from the trauma.

Issues at large
First, the problem. In Canada, the Catholic Church was in charge of over 70 per cent of the residential schools between the 1880s and 1990s. The actions of the Church have prolonged impacts even in the present times and can be identified through impoverishment, systemic racism and inequality. The indigenous female population of Canada amounts to four per cent but makes up for a quarter of the female suicides in the country. The women from these communities are 4.5 times more likely to be a victim of violent crimes than women from other communities. The most defining impact of the residential schools and the Church's policies is the loss of languages, culture, customs, and traditions caused by the separation of the children from their families and the inhuman conditions in the schools.

Second, the Pope's visit. Pope Francis' visit to Canada comes seven years after the Truth and Reconciliation Commission demanded an apology from the Church for operating a network of residential schools that marginalized and suppressed indigenous communities. In April 2022, the Pope apologized to the people of the First Nations in the Vatican City and promised to visit Canada and apologize to the people in person. The current visit draws from the first apology to the Canadian First Nations people and also acknowledges the crimes committed by the discriminating institution more than 100 years ago.

Third, a series of apologies. The Church's apology to the indigenous people in Canada comes at a time of increased recognition and acceptance of past errors and wrongful policies by the entities in power. In August 2021, New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern formally apologized to the Pacific communities for the "Dawn Raids." In September 2021, French president Emmanuel Macron apologized for France's destructive role in Algeria and atrocities against the people of the country. In May 2021, Macron sought forgiveness from Rwanda for its role in the 1994 Genocide. The apologies are being made as reports of abuse become public and cannot be ignored. In March 2021, the UN reported on the Nordic country's history of racism against the Sámi people.

Fourth, the exclusion of sexual abuse. One of the primary criticisms of the apologies made by the Pope in the previous week is the failure to address the sexual abuse of the residential schools. According to some estimates, over 10 to 50,000 children died at these schools because of harsh physical labour, violence, and abuse by priests, nuns, and staff members. There were reports of children as young as six years killing themselves after being assaulted by the staff. The grave violation of their human rights was not a secret and was known to the government in 1907 when the Indian Affairs Chief visited the schools and found that on average 25 per cent of the student died in the schools. The Church has also been accused of forced sterilization and abortion.

Fifth, Canada's response. The Canadian government issued a formal apology to the communities in 2008 and described the incident as a sad chapter in the history of the country. The government was historically supportive of the Church's policies. The First Prime Minister of Canada John A Macdonald supported the idea of removing the children from their parents. In 1920, the former Deputy Minister of Indian Affairs said that he wishes to get rid of the "Indian problem." The government has now come a long way in accepting its errors, apologizing, and providing reparations. The government also referred to the Pope's apology and said that it wasn't enough and was just a start to the reconciliation process.

In perspective
The issue of abuse against indigenous people is gaining importance in the 21st century because of the intergenerational trauma inflicted on the community and the vehement suppression of the mishandling in the past. Pope Francis' apology to the indigenous community is a start for countries and governments across the world to acknowledge the crimes against the indigenous population and initiate reconciliation. The apology stands in line with Pope Francis' image of a liberal and modern head of the Catholic Church who himself advocated and took the responsibility for the abuses of the institution. The apology is late to the communities who lost thousands of children to cultural assimilation tactics but is better than the crimes being left unreported and unchecked forever.


Iraq: The escalating political crisis
In the news
On 30 July, protestors rallying in support of Shia leader Muqtada al- Sadr, breached the heavily fortified Green Zone and stormed Iraq's Parliament for the second time in a week. The protestors opposed the candidacy of Mohammed Shia al-Sudani, the pro-Iran Shia Coordination Framework's candidate for the prime minister's post.
 
The incident resulted in clashes, stone pelting, tear gas firing, and more than 125 people, including protestors and the police are reportedly injured. The UN Mission in Iraq called for de-escalation and said that the "voices of reason and wisdom are critical to prevent further violence."
 
On 1 August, al-Sadr's supporters were countered by Coordination Framework's and al-Sudani's supporters who held demonstrations in the latter's favour. On the same day, Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi called on the protestors to evacuate the Parliament and participate in a "national dialogue" involving all the parties and "draw a road map for a solution."
 
Issues at large
First, the failure to form a government. Al-Sadr's Sadrist Movement won 74 seats in the October 2021 elections, emerging as the largest faction in the 329-seat Parliament. He failed to secure a 2/3rds majority and was unable to form the government, paving the way for a political deadlock. After nearly eight months of failing to form the government, al-Sadr made his 74 legislators resign but warned of political pressure through possible mass demonstrations in support of his candidature. The protests now have prevented the Parliament from convening and choosing the Prime Minister and President.
 
Second, Iran's role. Tehran has taken advantage of the Shia centrism in Iraq and aims to further its interest by uniting the Shiite parties and backing the Popular Mobilization Front. In other words, Iran has positioned itself to be an influential external power in post-war Iraq, using the relationship it shares with the Shia political outfits.
 
Third, nationalist sentiment in Iraq. The Sadrist Movement gains its popularity by seeking to detangle Iraq from the American influence, Iran's strong influence in political matters, separating itself from the pro-Iran Shia factions, and representing different sects such as Sunnis and the Kurds. The support for al-Sadr emerges from the poorer sections of the population, southern Iraq's Shia heartland, and working-class people in Baghdad.
 
In perspective
First, the political situation in Iraq since the war. Post2003, the political landscape of Iraq has been dominated by sectarian competition and rivalry between the Shias and Sunnis, with an increasing Shia-centric rebuilding. The protestors have now called for a change in the existing political system which distributes power based on sect and party and is believed to be the root cause of corruption and lack of tangible progress in the post-war years.
 
Second, a political crisis in the region. Political deadlocks, inability to form stable governments and demand for reforms are plaguing the Middle East. Israel is headed towards the fifth election in four years after the Parliament was dissolved following the collapse of the coalition government headed by Prime Minister Neftali Bennett. Currently, Yair Lapid is the caretaker prime ministeruntil the elections are scheduled in October. Lebanon is in the midst of a serious political and economic crisis, with the government formation process still being a point of disagreement between prime minister Najib Mikati and president Michael Aoun. A section of the population in Palestine is rallying, demanding political reforms, and a formation of a functioning cabinet, ending the one-man presidential rule by Mahmoud Abbas. With Iraq's crisis escalating, the region suffers from another backslide.
 
Third, the snowballing into a bigger crisis. Political issues, coupled with economic woes have led to a crisis in countries like Sri Lanka, Chile, Lebanon, and now Iraq. While a direct comparison of the situation in these countries would be unfair, given that the background and trigger points were different, and the direction of Iraqi protests is yet to be known completely, the base of the crisis lies in policy misappropriation. It is yet to be seen if Iraq sees this as a starting point of a snowballing movement demanding structural changes in the system.


Senegal: Ruling coalition and opposition claim victory in parliamentary elections
In the news
On 1 August, Senegal's president Macky Sall's ruling party coalition claimed victory in the parliamentary elections. Aminata Toure, head of the presidential coalition said that the coalition had an "unquestionable majority," winning 30 out of 46 administrative departments. President Macky Sall said: "We have given a majority in the National Assembly." However, of the 165 parliamentary seats, the number of seats won by the coalition is yet to be announced.
 
On the same day, an opposition coalition Wallu Senegal said it had defeated the ruling party in the majority departments with an allied coalition Yewwi Askane Wi. The Wallu Senegal's statement said: "The provisional results from the legislative elections show that President Macky Sall lost the elections … and that he will not have a majority in the National Assembly."
 
Meanwhile, the opposition coalition, Yewwi Askane Wi rejected the ruling party's claimed victory as a "prefabricated majority." The opposition leader, Barthelemy Dias disputed the claims of winning elections and warned the ruling coalition of having no right to announce the election results. He said: "The people will respond, and the people will come out into the streets tomorrow, and you will tell us where you got your majority," He added: "You lost this election at the national level. We will not accept it. This abuse will not pass."
 
Issues at large
First, Senegal's electoral process and challenges. Senegal, a Muslim majority country has a model of stability in Africa. The country had consecutive peaceful power transfers in 2000 and 2012 and has never experienced any coups. Under Senegal's hybrid electoral system, 97 candidates winning a majority are elected to various administrative departments, 53 are elected using proportional representation and 15 are elected by Senegalese living outside the country. Though Senegal has a 16 million strong population, only 6.7 million were registered to vote. The election processes are often hindered by contentious campaigns, corruption charges, mismanagement, disinformation, and violence.
 
Second, the political backdrop. The political tension in the country is triggered by the years-long pattern of political opposition being obstructed on multiple grounds. In March 2021, violent street protests took place, resulting in several fatalities and extensive damage to government buildings and businesses. The protests broke out after president Macky Sall's main opponent Ousmane Sonko, who came third in the 2019 presidential election, was arrested on rape charges. In 2015 and 2018, two other major opposition leaders were jailed on corruption charges. On 22 June, another wave of protests broke out after the main opposition coalition Yewwi Askan Wi's national list for the legislative polls was disqualified on technical grounds.
 
Third, Macky Sall's third-term ambition. Sall  came to power in 2012 with popular support after removing Abdoulaye Wade. He was re-elected in 2019 for a second term. In 2016, the constitutional amendment reduced the presidential term from seven to five years, renewable only once. According to the constitutional council, the law is not retroactive and therefore the first term of President Sall is beyond the law. Having favourable circumstances, many accuse Sall of trying to eliminate his opponents, seeking a third term in 2024.
 
Four, Senegal's economic challenges. Since the Covid-19 pandemic, the country is struggling with economic crises worsened by unemployment and the global rise in fuel and food prices. The trade and tourism sectors widely suffered from the sanctions imposed on neighbouring West African countries after a series of coups. Besides, in 2022, the International Monetary Fund estimated that inflation in the country is expected to reach 5.5 per cent.
 
In perspective
First, the lack of transparency around Senegal's electoral process has put the country's stability image at risk. The political actors attempts to hold onto power harms the Senegalese democracy. If president Sall runs for a third term in 2024, it would add to the footsteps of Ivory Coast president Alassane Ouattara and former Guinea president Alpha Conde, adding to the emerging trend of democratic backsliding and entrenchment of authoritarianism in Africa.
 
Second, the political backdrop in the country has caused public dissent with the ruling governments. Increasing violent protests and demonstrations are worsened by the authoritarian approach of Sall's government.
 
Third, beyond political issues, raging youth unemployment, growing inequalities, corruption scandals, weak handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, and inflation are at the root of growing public anger.
 
Four, though rhetorically Senegal had successful elections, multiple issues put the country at higher risk of instability, presenting a worrying future for Senegal.


Also, from around the World
By Avishka Ashok, Sruthi Sadhasivam, Vijay Anand Panigrahi, Akriti Sharma, Abigail Miriam Fernandez, Joel Jacob, Rashmi BR, Apoorva Sudhakar, Rishma Banerjee, Padmashree Anandhan, Lavanya Ravi, and Sejal Sharma
 
East and Southeast Asia
China: Open letter urges UN Human Rights High Commissioner to refrain from fabricating assessment on Xinjiang
On 27 July, Xinhua Net publicized an open letter to the UN high commissioner for human rights Michelle Bachelet. The letter expressed concerns regarding the pressure created on the international organization on releasing the assessment on Xinjiang. The letter hoped that the high commissioner's report would reflect the truth and facts of what she witnessed and experienced during her visit to Xinjiang in May 2022. It claimed that the report falsely accused the Chinese government of suppressing the Muslim minority in the Xinjiang autonomous region and will be used as a tool to interfere in the country's internal affairs. Xinhua Net reported: "The assessment, once released, will be definitely used by certain countries as a political tool to interfere in China's internal affairs and to contain China's development under the pretext of human rights. It will badly damage the credibility of Madame High Commissioner yourself and the OHCHR, and seriously undermine the developing countries' confidence in constructive cooperation with the OHCHR." The letter was signed by 923 state institutions and other government bodies.
 
Taiwan: Chinese vessels spotted near the Taiwan Strait ahead of Nancy Pelosi's visit
On 2 August, the Strait Times reported that as unrest rose over the visit of the US House of Representatives speaker Nancy Pelosi in Taipei, several Chinese warplanes crossed by the median line that divides the Taiwan Strait. The US declared on 1 August that it will not be frightened by Chinese "sabre rattling" over Pelosi's visit to Taiwan, which China has consistently warned against since it views Taiwan as a wayward province that needs to be reunited. Numerous Chinese vessels had remained close to the dividing line since 1 August in addition to Chinese aircraft flying close by.
 
Myanmar: Junta extends emergency rule till 2023
On 31 July, the senior general of Myanmar, Min Aung Hlaing declared that the "emergency rule" will be extended as the state stands ruptured by internal turmoil since the coup. Previously, the government promised to conduct elections but now it claimed "instability" as the chief reason for failing to keep up its promise and that emergency rule allowed the government to arrest people. In the aftermath of the coup, Aung Hlaing became the prime minister and expressed his desire to reform the electoral system by accommodating the "first past the post system" and "proportional representation system." However, the civilians are weary of whether the military would conduct elections and restore normalcy.
 
Myanmar: Advocacy group reports Junta's usage of Russian aircraft for targeting civilians
On 30 July, Myanmar Witness, an advocacy group reported that the Myanmar government has been using "Yak-130 aircraft," an aircraft imported from Russia to launch attacks against its people. In a report, Myanmar Witness said: "During this investigation, credible reports and geolocation have revealed the use of the Yak-130 within populated, civilian areas." Most of the attacks have been targeting Myawaddy town, a region that houses ethnic armed groups. the organization was able to geolocate attacks occurring in the Thailand-Myanmar border region. Russia has been the major exporter of arms to Myanmar. While the US, Canada, and the UK have sanctioned those who extend arms to Myanmar's airforce, the advocacy groups have demanded the imposition of an embargo on aviation fuel.
 
Cambodia: Rural populace gets access to clean water and sanitation
On 1 August, Xinhua reported that there is a rise in accessibility of clean water and sanitation by the rural people from 70 per cent to 80 per cent in five years. The ministry of rural development's secretary of state, claimed that since 2018, the country had established 2,440 rainwater tanks, 1,271 community ponds, 200 water distribution systems, and 11,741 wells and also provided about 145,865 water jars to people. For sanitation facilities for rural people, the government constructed about 433,014 toilets for villagers and 11,198 handwashing facilities for public schools. The minister said: "We have set our goal to reach 100 percent access to clean water supply and sanitation in rural areas by 2025."
 
Myanmar: UN reports displacement of 1.2 million people
On 1 August, the UN spokesperson claimed that about 1.2 million civilians are displaced across the region out of which about 866,000 people got displaced due to internal conflict since the 2021 Junta takeover. Out of the remaining displaced populace of 346,000 people, many of them are situated in the Rakhine state. Dujarric said: "We have reached around half of our target with at least one form of humanitarian assistance at mid-year, despite access constraints and funding shortfalls. To reach the remaining vulnerable communities, we need better access and additional funding, especially in light of inflation." Only 13 per cent of the UN's 2022 humanitarian response plan for Myanmar is funded, falling short of USD 719 million.
 
Laos: Joint medical exercise with China ends
On 29 July, the "Peace Train-2022" joint humanitarian medical rescue exercise and medical service activities initiative of Laos and China ended. As part of the "bilateral annual plan for exchanges and cooperation," the joint exercise was held from 19 July to 29 July. The two sides have been collaborating on the four joints including "joint command and control, joint treatment of the wounded, joint epidemic prevention and control, and joint evacuation of the wounded, during the medical rescue exercise." Further, the Chinese side extended nucleic acid testing equipment and other materials to the Lao People's Army. During the closing ceremony of the 10-day drill, Laos's deputy defense minister, Vongkham Phommakone honoured "friendship medals" to ten of the Chinese military medical team's representatives. Both sides perceived the joint exercise as a means to enhance cooperation and collaboration in the future.
 
Laos: Hungry river phenomenon causes Mekong river bank erosion
On 31 July, the director of the Southeast Asia program and the energy, water, and sustainability program at the Stimson Center, Brian Eyler claimed that upstream damming caused the "Hungry river phenomenon" that gradually resulted in erosion of the river. Further, Eyler said: "Upstream dams in China have removed more than half of the sediment from the Mekong mainstream and now that Laos has built about 100 dams, the effects are being felt even more severely." Director of the Center for Southeast Asia Studies at the University, Ian Baird claimed that along with the hungry river phenomenon, sand dredging and deforestation can be potential causes of erosion. Some perceive sailing ships weighing 100 tonnes to cause huge waves that adversely affect the riverbank. The erosion greatly affects Laos's economic security and the livelihood of the coastal communities.
 
Cambodia: IUCN reports extinction of tigers in three Southeast Asian countries
On 29 July, as a result of "loss of habitat" and "poaching," the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declared that tigers are extinct in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. development can be attributed to hunting, corruption, and agribusiness development. A postdoctoral researcher with the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit of the University of Oxford said: "Evidence suggests that tigers have been extirpated from Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area (NEPL), which is Laos' largest protected area and previously had the country's only source population of tigers." Previously, the Cambodian prime minister, Hun Sen pledged to enhance the tiger count by acquiring assistance from the World Wide Fund for Nature. Ash called for addressing the root cause of extinction before adopting measures for enhancing the tiger populace. The IUCN report suggests a plan to introduce a 12 year strategy for preserving the flora and fauna in the region.
 
Vietnam: Conducts joint military drill with India
On 1 August, the India-Vietnam military drill, "Exercise VINBAX 2022," was initiated at the Chandimandir Military Station. The agenda for this year is "employment and deployment of an engineers' company and a medical team" as part of the United Nations contingent for peace-keeping operations. The joint exercise intends to solidify confidence, and interoperability and allow for exchanging vital experiences of both the Indian Army and the Vietnam People's Army. The collective engagement is expected to provide ample space for both "contingents" to get enlightened about each others' national heritage.
 
South Asia
Bangladesh: Power cuts haunt the country amid global fuel shortage
On 1 August, Bangladesh's minister for power stated that it was failing to secure long-term natural gas supplies, leading to extending power cuts for another three years. Amidst the soaring fuel prices due to Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the cost of spot LNG in Asia has increased two-fold. Hence, Bangladesh is trying to secure more long-term supplies and seeking financial support from the creditors like the IMF to control its expenditures owing to the increased fuel prices. Bangladesh and Pakistan have been the worst hit by a price increase, and with only a few alternatives to resolve the issue, their economic growth is under the threat of rolling power cuts. 
 
Bangladesh: Turkey presents international peace award to Dhaka
On 2 August, Bangladesh was given an international peace award in memory of Turkish Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan. Bangladesh received the award for being a founding member of the D-8 organization for economic cooperation.
 
Bhutan: Indian chief of army staff meets the king
On 31 July, the chief of army staff of India General Manoj Pande visited Bhutan to meet with King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck to bolster strategic relations between the two countries. Pande's visit came owing to the recent concerns over satellite images showing China's attempt to build a village East of the Doklam plateau on the Bhutanese side, a strategically important area for all three countries. Pande was received with an impeccable Guard of Honour. During his visit, he also engaged with the Bhutanese army chief lieutenant general Batoo Tshering and some Indian officials.
 
Nepal: Global commitment to double Tiger population achieved
On 29 July, Nepal declared that it successfully fulfilled its global commitment to double its tiger population by 2022. The International Tiger Summit took place in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 2010, where 13 countries set the target to double their tiger population by 2022. In 2009, the tiger count in Nepal was 121, which has now increased to 355. The other 12 tiger range countries participating in the summit were Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
 
Sri Lanka: Navy arrests 47 people trying to illegally leave the country
On 1 August, the Sri Lankan Navy arrested  47 people illegally trying to migrate to a foreign country by sea. The navy conducted a special operation in Wennapuwa town and arrested the suspects who belonged to Jaffna, Trincomalee, Mundalama, Kalmunai, and other parts of the country.
 
Sri Lanka: Violence against protestors weakens the movement
On 1 August, Al Jazeera reported that many protestors on the GoGotaGama protest sites have left the camps following the violence inflicted on the protestors in the last few days. On 1 August, President Ranil Wickremesinghe responding to the protestors said: "I am appealing to you not to do that as I have no home to go to." The protestors,quoted by Al Jazeera said: "We believe the role of GotaGoGama as the center of the protest is now over. The next phase of the protest should focus on introducing political, social, and economic reforms."

Pakistan: Talks with TTP end without results
On 1 August, the talks between Pakistan and TTP were reported to have reached a deadlock as the militant group refused to budge from its demand for the reversal of the merger of erstwhile FATA with the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Later, Pakistan sent a second delegation after a week to break the stalemate following the visit of the delegation of ulemas on 30 July but since the prospects were not clear, it remains a deadlock.
 
Afghanistan: ISIL-K seeks to recruit members from other terrorist groups, says UN report
On 29 July, the UNSC report of the Secretary-General on the threat posed by ISIL (Da'esh) to international peace and security and the range of United Nations efforts in support of Member States in countering the threat claimed that during the first half of 2022, the threat posed by Da'esh and its affiliates to international peace and security continued to rise, with no deviation from the trend observed in the past two years. Further, the report added that the Da'esh views Afghanistan as a base for expansion in the wider region for the realization of its "great caliphate" project, stating that ISIL-K seeks to strengthen its capabilities by recruiting members from other terrorist groups, as well as to attract disaffected Taliban fighters and dissatisfied local ethnic minorities.
 
Central Asia, Middle East, and Africa
Azerbaijan-Armenia: Nagorno-Karabakh military accuses Baku of attacks
On 1 August, Nagorno-Karabakh's military accused Azerbaijani forces of attacks on several sections of the northern and north-western border of the unrecognized republic. Further, Karabakh's Ministry of Defense stated that its ministry had suppressed the attempts of Azerbaijani soldiers to cross the contact line. However, Azerbaijan's Ministry of Defense categorically denied any ceasefire violations in or around Karabakh. The situation along the Karabakh line of contact has been relatively calm since March, however, there has been recent tension along the border with frequent firing from both sides.
 
Yemen: Ends four-month truce
On 2 August, the four-month ceasefire to the war in Yemen expired, amidst looming fears of a new cycle of conflict.. The UN-sponsored truce had been the longest respite in seven years, with parties to the conflict adhering to a large extent, despite incidents of violations in some areas. The ceasefire resulted in a relative reduction in the humanitarian crisis, civilian deaths, and fuel prices. The UN and US envoys to Yemen are increasing their diplomatic efforts, visiting Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Oman, to find ways to extend the ceasefire and negotiate with the parties.
 
Lebanon: The US mediates a meeting with Israel to resolve the maritime dispute
On 1 August, US special envoy and coordinator for international energy affairs visited Beirut, met President Michael Aoun, and discussed the issue of the maritime dispute between Israel and Lebanon over the competing claims on offshore gas fields. The envoy was carrying an Israeli proposal that was issued by Tel Aviv in response to Lebanon's demarcation offer.. Following the meeting, the envoy said that he is positive about making "continuous progress" and looks forward to "coming back to the region and being able to make the final arrangements."
 
Israel-Palestine: Israeli raid in West Bank
On 1 August, the Israeli army raided the Jenin refugee camp on the West Bank. The Palestinian health ministry said that al-Kafrini, a 17-year-old teenager was shot dead by the Israeli army during the shooting that broke between the army and pro-Palestine fighters in the camp. The Israeli forces were also successful in arresting a senior leader from the Palestinian Islamic Jihad Movement (PIJ).
 
Mali: 15 soldiers and three civilians killed in two attacks
On 27 July, 15 soldiers and three civilians were killed in two separate attacks on military camps. The army said six soldiers were killed and 25 wounded in an attack on a military camp in Sonkolo. Nine soldiers were killed in an attack on a military camp near Kalumba town. An attack on the military base near Mopti was unsuccessful. The army said 48 militants had been killed in Sonkolo when the army retaliated. The attacks come a week after a major attack on Mali's main military base near the capital city Bamako.
 
Mali-France: Abandon neocolonial attitude, Bamako tells Macron
On 31 July, Mali's military government reacted to France's President Emmanuel Macron's remarks during his visit to West Africa. The government spokesperson said: "The transitional government demands President Macron permanently abandon his neocolonial, paternalistic and patronizing posture to understand that no one can love Mali better than Malians." During his visit, Macron said it was the responsibility of West African countries to ensure that Malians "express the sovereignty of the people."
 
Democratic Republic of the Congo: Two killed as UN peacekeepers open fire
On 31 July, two people were killed when UN peacekeepers opened fire while trying to enter DRC from Uganda. Deutsche Welle quoted a statement and reported that UN secretary general Antonio Guterres was "outraged" by the incident and demanded accountability. The incident took place after at least three UN peacekeepers and 12 civilians were killed in protests against the UN which began on 25 July in the eastern DRC. The protesters said the UN has failed to protect civilians from armed militia groups.
 
Europe and the Americas
NATO: Germany, Hungary, and Italy take over policing of Baltic airspace
On 1 August, NATO members Germany, Hungary, and Italy took over the policing of the airspace over the Baltic region, as a part of NATO's air policing mission. The mission will be led by four JAS-39 fighter aircraft and around 80 personnel from Hungary, out of Šiauliai air base in Lithuania. Four German Eurofighter aircraft, flying out of Amari, Estonia, and Italian Eurofighters based in Malbork, Poland will join them. The new force will replace the Belgian, French, and Spanish units that have been patrolling the Baltic airspace since April. NATO spokesperson Oana Lungescu said: "At a time when European security has been fundamentally altered by Russia's war against Ukraine, NATO fighter jets remain ready around the clock to protect Allied airspace. We are always vigilant."
 
Europe: New gas reduction plan introduced to prepare for potential discontinuation of Russian gas
On 27 July, EU member states agreed to introduce a new plan to reduce their gas usage, to prepare for the winter, if Russia cuts its gas supply. They have set the goal to cut consumption by 15 per cent by March 2023. So far, Ireland, Malta, and Cyprus have been entirely exempted from the plan as they are physically disconnected from the EU and cannot contribute to the gas stored by the bloc. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania too secured an exemption as they are still heavily dependent on Russian gas, and will have to adhere to the plan only if Russia retaliates. Another clause by which countries will be exempt from the plan is if they overshoot the EU-wide gas storage target of 80 per cent by 1 November.
 
Poland: UN special rapporteur accuses of discrimination against non-European migrants
On 29 July, UN Special Rapporteur on migrants' rights, Felipe Gonzalez Morales criticized Poland for its discriminatory treatment of migrants. He urged Poland to stop detaining non-Ukrainian migrants near the Belarus border. While he praised Poland's government for their protection and assistance to over two million refugees from Ukraine, he also noted that migrants from the middle east and Afghanistan were not been treated the same way. According to Morales, the non-European refugees have not only been illegally detained which violates international humanitarian law, but also face trouble getting residence permits, proper shelter, and legal protection.
 
Latin America: Monkeypox deaths on the rise
On 31 July, Brazil and Spain reported their first monkeypox deaths. Three people died of the morbidity, with 1066 and 3750 confirmed cases in the two countries respectively. Subsequently, Peru and Mexico also reported rising fatalities due to this viral disease as the WHO declared it a global health emergency. However, the government response has been insufficient across the region with little efforts made towards educating the masses and setting up testing facilities. 10 countries in the region have shown interest in acquiring a vaccine, although the infection can be substantially contained with proper control measures. According to the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, there are 21,148 cases worldwide, with most cases centered in Africa.
 
Latin America: Frequent natural disasters raise an alarm
On 30 July, the World Meteorological Organisation in its report on the Latin American and Caribbean region discovered the rise in natural disasters between 2020 and 2022. Statistics say that there were 175 disasters, out of which 88 per cent were weather, climate, or water-related. The regions have been facing intense periods of heatwaves, wildfires, and droughts following a significant rise in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. In addition, Andean glaciers have experienced a 30 per cent loss in their area since 1990, and have triggered rising sea levels in the region. Climate disasters and extreme weather events have been taking place more frequently calling for urgent attention and the development of an early-warning system. 
 
Latin America: Synthetic drugs adding to the substance abuse crisis
On 1 August, the Latin American region reported an influx of a fatal synthetic drug carfentanil, in the substance market. Carfentanil is a derivative of the powerful opioid fentanyl, responsible for the rise in drug-related deaths in the region. The chemical has been taking over the drug export market in Mexico simultaneously establishing a consumer market in the region. Earlier, the market was centered around marijuana and cocaine. In February, Argentina reported 24 deaths due to the consumption of cocaine laced with this chemical. The market for carfentanil has become a lucrative business for drug cartels in the region due to the cheap cost of production and huge profit margins associated with it.
 
The US: Nancy Pelosi begins her tour to Asian countries
On 1 August, Nancy Pelosi's office stated that she will begin a trip to four Asian nations on 31 July, despite widespread rumours that she would visit Taiwan.. The office said: "Speaker Nancy Pelosi is leading a Congressional delegation to the Indo-Pacific region, including visits to Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan… The trip will focus on mutual security, economic partnership, and democratic governance in the Indo-Pacific region." It added that those nations would be included in the visit but did not indicate whether Pelosi, who is third in line to become president, may make more stops.
 
The US: The military deploys ships and plans near Taiwan
On 1 August, the US military started deploying US planes and ships near Taiwan, creating a buffer zone in anticipation of Nancy Pelosi's visit. Pelosi, on her Asia tour, landed in Singapore on 1 August. A local news network reporter stated Pelosi will arrive in Taiwan by 2 August night. The visit has sparked tensions between China and the US, with Beijing considering the visit provocative and issuing multiple warnings. China's foreign ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian warned against Pelosi's visit to Taiwan, claiming that it would lead to "very serious" developments. Lijian said:: "The China's People's Liberation Army will never sit idly by." The staff of Pelosi's tour is ensuring a safe visit with the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan returning to the South China Sea and multiple assault ships positioned in Japan.
 
The US: Joint statement with Japan focuses on strengthening economic security and research
On 29 July, the inaugural ministerial meeting of the US-Japan Economic Policy Consultative Committee (EPCC) was held in the US. The secretary of state Antony Blinken and Japanese foreign minister Yoshimasa Hayashi discussed recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, disruption caused by the Ukraine war, pushing back against China, and energy and food security. The dialogue also aimed at establishing a new joint research center for next-generation semi-conductors which would provide research and development resources and will be open for other "like-minded" countries to collaborate. Japan plans to research next generation semiconductor chips and hopes to establish its supply chain to reduce dependence on Taiwan.
 
The US: New sanctions proposed against Iran's oil companies
On 1 August, Wall Street Journal reported that the US government is working on a new set of sanctions against companies that smuggle Iran's oil. Many companies from Iran which have lost market due to strict sanctions by the US try to sell Iran's oil as Iran crude blend by forging documents. This is the third time the US is issuing new sanctions against Iran in 2022 since the nuclear deal talks have been stalled. Even though Iran's oil is one of the cheapest, priced at USD 10 below the global benchmark, multiple sanctions by the US have made it difficult for Iran's oil industry to make a profit.
 
The US: Kentucky floods leading to 37 casualties
On 2 August, flash floods hit Kentucky killing at least 37 people.. The Kentucky governor stated that the death toll would continue to rise as hundreds remain missing. Loss of power has affected more than 12,000 houses and businesses. Houses were reportedly swept away in hard-hit areas. Overnight curfews have been declared in two counties but it lead to theft and looting. Beshear stated it was the "deadliest flood" of his life as Kentucky faces its worst flood in decades.
 
The US: Wildfire in California leaves two dead
On 2 August, the BBC reported wildfire in northern California had been raging for 48 hours and has grown to more than 50,000 acres in size. Two people were found dead inside a car in the driveway of a property that was on fire. The wildfire forced two thousand people to flee their homes. Named the Mckinney Fire, it is California's largest fire in 2022 which started on 29 July. A combination of strong winds, lightning, and dry fuel has led to a rapid explosion in size. Around 650 firefighters are battling to contain the fire and light rains have helped the fire from spreading more. California's governor Gavin Newsom declared a state of emergency over the fire.


About the authors
Anu Maria Joseph is a postgraduate scholar in Madras Christian College, Chennai. Rashmi BR, Akriti Sharma and Harini Madhusudan, are Doctoral Scholars at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Avishka Ashok, Abigail Miriam Fernandez, Apoorva Sudhakar, and Padmashree Anandhan are Project Associates at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Joel Jacob is a Research Intern at the School of Conflict and Security Studies, NIAS. Lavanya Ravi and Sruthi Sadhasivam are Post Graduate scholars from Christ (Deemed to be) University, Bangalore. Sejal Sharma and Vijay Anand Panigrahi are Post Graduate Scholars from Pondicherry University, Puducherry.

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IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

The systemic oppression continues despite three decades of the Royal Commission report

read more
Africa
May 2021 | IPRI # 167
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa. Three reasons why

read more
Afghanistan 
May 2021 | IPRI # 166
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The US decision to withdraw is a call made too early. Three reasons why

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 165
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violent protests in Colombia, US troops withdrawal in Afghanistan, and the battle for Marib in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 164
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Israel-Syria missile strikes, Clashes in Somalia and Afghan meetings in Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 163
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

George Floyd murder trial, Fukushima water release controversy, anti-France protests in Pakistan, Report on the Rwandan genocide and another Loya Jirga in Afghanistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 162
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Riots in Northern Ireland, Sabotage on an Iranian nuclear facility, and a massacre in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 161
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Global gender gap report, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam talks failure, Maoist attack in India, Border tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the Security forces take control of Palma in Mozambique

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 160
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bloody Week in Myanmar, a Suicide attack in Indonesia and an Insurgency in Mozambique

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 159
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sanctions on China, Saudi Arabia ceasefire in Yemen, the UNHRC resolution on Sri Lanka, and a massacre in Niger

read more
Conflict Weekly #62
March 2021 | IPRI # 158
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Gender Protests in Australia, Expanding Violence in Myanmar and Anti-protests bill in the UK

read more
Conflict Weekly # 61
March 2021 | IPRI # 157
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Women’s Day, Swiss Referendum, Myanmar Violence, George Floyd Trial and Lebanon Protests

read more
Conflict Weekly #60
March 2021 | IPRI # 156
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

From Myanmar and Hong Kong in Asia to Nigeria in Africa: Seven conflicts this week

read more
Conflict Weekly # 59
February 2021 | IPRI # 155
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Protests in Myanmar, ‘Comfort Women’ issue in South Korea and Abductions in Nigeria

read more
Ethiopia
February 2021 | IPRI # 154
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Five fallouts of the military offensive in Tigray

read more
Afghanistan
February 2021 | IPRI # 153
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The recent surge in targeted killing vs the troops withdrawal

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 152
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

In Argentina, an extraordinarily progressive law on abortion brings the Conservatives to protest

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 151
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

In Poland, the protests against the abortion law feed into anti-government sentiments

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 150
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

In Honduras, a move towards a permanent ban on abortion laws

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 149
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

In Thailand, the new abortion law poses more questions

read more
Myanmar
February 2021 | IPRI # 148
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Civilian protests vs military: Three factors will decide the outcome in Myanmar

read more
Conflict Weekly # 58
February 2021 | IPRI # 147
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Separatism bill in France, Protests in Nepal against a gender-specific law, Surge in targetted killings in Afghanistan, and Instability continues in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly #57
February 2021 | IPRI # 146
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Coup protests in Myanmar, a new US strategy on Yemen, and the US-Iran differences on nuclear roadmap

read more
India and Sri Lanka
February 2021 | IPRI # 145
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan and Drorima Chatterjee

Five ways India can detangle the fishermen issue with Sri Lanka

read more
Conflict Weekly #56
February 2021 | IPRI # 144
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Myanmar and Protests in Russia

read more
Conflict Weekly #55
January 2021 | IPRI # 143
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers' protests in India, Vaccine Wars, another India-China border standoff, and Navalny's imprisonment

read more
Conflict Weekly # 54
January 2021 | IPRI # 142
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New President in the US, new Chinese Village in Arunachal Pradesh, new Israeli settlement in West Bank, and another massacre in Sudan

read more
Conflict Weekly # 53
January 2021 | IPRI # 141
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Trump impeached by the US House, Hazara miners buried in Pakistan, Farm laws stayed in India, and the Crisis escalation in CAR

read more
Conflict Weekly # 52
January 2021 | IPRI # 140
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

GCC lifts Qatar blockade, Iran decides to enrich uranium, Argentina legalizes abortion, French soldiers targeted in Mali, and the AFSPA extended in India's Northeast

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 139
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

The Middle East: The Abraham Accords may be the deal of the century, but comes with a heavy Palestinian cause  

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 138
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

France:  Needs to rethink  the state-religion relation in battling extremism

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 137
IPRI Comments

Teshu Singh

India and China: A tense border with compromise unlikely

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 136
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia: The conflict in Tigray and the regional fallouts

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 135
IPRI Comments

Kamna Tiwary

Europe: From anti-government protests in Belarus to ‘United for Abortion’ in Poland 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 134
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Brexit: A year of the UK-EU transition talks and finally, a Deal 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 133
IPRI Comments

Mallika Devi

Hong Kong: Slow Strangulation of Protests, Security Law and China's victory

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 132
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Thailand: For the pro-democracy protests, it is a long march ahead 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 131
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Nagorno-Karabakh: Rekindled fighting, Causalities and a Ceasefire

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 130
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Hot on the Conflict Trails: Top Ten Conflicts in 2020

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 129
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Boko Haram abductions in Nigeria, Violence in Afghanistan and Farmers' protest in India

read more
Gender Peace and Conflict
December 2020 | IPRI # 128
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

From Poland to India: More attacks on abortion rights coincide with the emergence of right

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 127
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers protest in India, Radicals target idols in Bangladesh, UK reaches out to the EU and Saudi Arabia to mend ties with Qatar

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 126
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An assassination in Iran, Massacre in Nigeria and Suicide bombings in Afghanistan

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 125
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Ensure the DDC elections are inclusive, free and fair

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 124
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Electoral violence in Africa, War crimes in Afghanistan, COVID's third global wave, and Protest escalation in Thailand

read more
Domestic turmoil and South Asia
November 2020 | IPRI # 123
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s 20-Amendment is more than what was bargained for

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 122
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US troops withdrawal, Violent protests in Thailand, Refugee crisis in Ethiopia, Anti-France protests in Pakistan and the Indo-Pak tensions along the LoC

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 121
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Alliance decides to fight the DDC elections together. The ballot may be thicker than principle

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 120
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A peace agreement in Nagorno-Karabakh and a brewing civil war in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 119
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

IS terror in Vienna and Kabul, new controversy along Nepal-China border, and a boundary dispute in India’s Northeast

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 118
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

The Friday Backgrounder: Union Government amends the land laws, and the Kashmiri Opposition protests. There is politics in both

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 117
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, rising gender violence shadows COVID-19 pandemic

read more
GLOBAL PROTESTS MOVEMENT
October 2020 | IPRI # 116
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Lebanon: One year of protests; it is more setbacks and little reforms

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 115
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, pandemic has eclipsed women’s role in peacebuilding

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 114
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The new demands within the State over the Official Language Act

read more
India's Northeast
October 2020 | IPRI # 113
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

The Naga Peace talks: Caught in its own rhetoric, NSCN(IM) will lose its stakes

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 112
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The Gupkar Declaration: Vociferous Valley and an Indifferent Jammu

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
October 2020 | IPRI # 111
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Flag, Constitution, Media Freedom and Local Elections

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 110
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Solidarity in France, Emergency withdrawn in Thailand, Terror tag removed in Sudan and Hunger in South Asia

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 109
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests against sexual violence in Bangladesh, One year after Xi-Modi summit, Assassination of a Deobandi scholar in Pakistan and continuing violence in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 108
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An Afghan woman nominated for the Nobel and a Dalit woman assaulted in India. External actors get involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 107
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, women peacebuilders need more than a seat at the table

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 106
IPRI Comments

Tamanna Khosla

In India, home has been the most violent place for women

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 105
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

In India, pandemic relegates women peacebuilders to the margins

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 104
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six million COVID cases in India, Abdullah Abdullah's visit to Pakistan, China's naval exercises in four seas, and the new tensions in Nagorno Karabakh

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 103
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Al Qaeda module in India, Naga Peace talks and the Polio problem in Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 102
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Afghan summit in Doha, India-China Five Points agreement, Women protest in Pakistan, New amendment in Sri Lanka and the Bahrain-Israel rapprochement

read more
The Middle East
September 2020 | IPRI # 101
IPRI Comments

Samreen Wani

Lebanon: Can Macron's visit prevent the unravelling?

read more
Africa
September 2020 | IPRI # 100
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

In Sudan, the government signs an agreement with the rebels. However, there are serious challenges

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 99
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Targeted Violence in Pakistan, Protests in Hong Kong and the Charlie Hebdo Trial in France

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
September 2020 | IPRI # 98
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: The PDP meeting, Muharram clashes and the Kashmiri parties vis-à-vis Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 97
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti Racist Protests in the US and the Floods in Pakistan

read more
Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 96
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali and Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Sri Lanka: Election Analysis, Expectations from the Government, Challenges Ahead, & a road map for India

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 95
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Resolution is a good beginning. So is the NIA charge sheet on the Pulwama Attack.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 94
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Proposed amendment in Sri Lanka, Verdict on the gunman in New Zealand, Peace Conference in Myanmar and the Ceasefire troubles in Libya

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 93
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Baby steps taken. Now, time to introduce a few big-ticket items

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 92
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Further trouble to the Naga Peace Talks, Taliban attack on woman negotiator, Protests in Thailand, Belarus and Bolivia, Israel-UAE Rapprochement, and the Oil Spill in Mauritius

read more
Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 91
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Integration and Assimilation are not synonymous.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 90
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Release of Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, Troubles in Naga Peace Talks in India’s Northeast, and a deadly week in Lebanon

read more
Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 89
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: One year later, is it time to change gears?

read more
Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 88
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka Elections 2020 - A Curtain Raiser: Issues, Actors, and Challenges

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 87
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

J&K a year after 5 August 2019, Militant ambush in Manipur, Environmental protests in Northeast India, and the return of street protests in Iraq

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 86
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Omar Abdullah complains, there is no space for mainstream leaders. Should there be one?

read more
Conflict Weekly 28
July 2020 | IPRI # 85
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Bihar, Nepal and Bangladesh, Abduction of a journalist in Pakistan, Neutralization of militants in Srinagar and the UNAMA report on Afghanistan

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 84
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, 20 years later women still await the return of post war normalcy

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 83
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: After the Hurriyat, is the PDP relevant in Kashmir politics today?

read more
Conflict Weekly 27
July 2020 | IPRI # 82
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Devastating floods in Assam, and a mob Lynching of cattle smugglers along India-Bangladesh border

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 81
IPRI Comments

Mehjabin Ferdous

In Bangladesh, laws need to catch up with reality

read more
Conflict Weekly 26
July 2020 | IPRI # 80
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in India's Northeast, FGM ban in Sudan, the UN warning on Global Hunger & the Return of Global Protests

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 79
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Four years after Burhan Wani

read more
Conflict Weekly 25
July 2020 | IPRI # 78
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict and COVID in J&K, Dispute over constructing a temple in Islamabad, Return of the Indian fishermen into the Sri Lankan Waters, and the water conflict over River Nile in Africa

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 77
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

The Rise, Fall and Irrelevance of Geelani. And the Hurriyat

read more
Conflict Weekly 24
July 2020 | IPRI # 76
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Geelani's Exit and Continuing Violence in J&K, and the BLA attack on Pakistan stock exchange in Karachi

read more
June 2020 | IPRI # 75
IPRI Comments

Sudip Kumar Kundu

Cyclone Amphan: West Bengal, Odisha limp back to a distorted normalcy

read more
June 2020 | IPRI # 74
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

An olive branch to the PTM in Pakistan: Will the PTI heed to the Pashtun rights movement

read more
Conflict Weekly 23
June 2020 | IPRI # 73
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Baloch Disappearance issue returns, Nepal tightens Citizenship rules, and Egypt enters the conflict in Libya

read more
Conflict Weekly 22
June 2020 | IPRI # 72
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence escalates along the India-China border, Cartographic tensions over India-Nepal border, Gas explosion in Assam and Deadly attacks by the Boko Haram in Nigeria

read more
Conflict Weekly 21
June 2020 | IPRI # 71
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Echoes of Black Lives Matter, Violence in Kashmir Valley, Rohingyas in the deep blue sea, One year of Hong Kong protests, Conflict in Libya and the human-wildlife conflict in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly 20
June 2020 | IPRI # 70
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A week of violence in the US, Afghanistan and Africa, Urban drivers of political violence, and anti-racism protests in Europe

read more
Conflict Weekly 19
May 2020 | IPRI # 69
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal, Ceasefire in Afghanistan, Indo-Nepal border dispute in Kalapani, Honour Killing in Pakistan, New protests  in Hong Kong & the Anti-lockdown protests in Europe

read more
Conflict Weekly 18
May 2020 | IPRI # 68
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Kalapani dispute in India-Nepal border, Migrants exodus in India, Continuing violence in Balochistan and KP

read more
Conflict Weekly 17
May 2020 | IPRI # 67
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The return of Hong Kong Protests, a new Ceasefire in Myanmar, China-Australia Tensions on COVID & Trade, and the Al Qaeda-Islamic State clashes in Africa

read more
Conflict Weekly 16
May 2020 | IPRI # 66
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Binge-fighting in Kashmir Valley, SIGAR report on Afghanistan, Killing of a PTM leader in Pakistan, the US Religious Freedom watchlist, and Haftar's ceasefire call in Libya

read more
Conflict Weekly 15
April 2020 | IPRI # 65
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire and Self Rule in Yemen, Syrian war trial in Germany, SIPRI annual report on military spending, and Low civilian casualties in Afghanistan 

read more
One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 64
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

Healing needs Forgiveness, Accountability, Responsibility and Justice

read more
One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 63
IPRI Comments

La Toya Waha

Have the Islamists Won? 

read more
Conflict Weekly 14
April 2020 | IPRI # 62
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A new wave of arrests in Hong Kong, One year after Easter Sunday attacks in Sri Lanka, ISIS violence in Mozambique, and the coming global Food Crisis

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 61
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Jharkhand: Proactive Judiciary, Strong Civil Society Role, Rural Vigilantes

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 60
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Bihar as Late Entrant: No Prompt Action, Punitive Measures, Migrant Crisis 

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 59
IPRI Comments

Anshuman Behera

Odisha’s Three Principles: Prepare for the Worst, Prepare Early, Prevent Loss of Lives

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 58
IPRI Comments

Niharika Sharma

New Delhi as Hotspot: Border Sealing, Curbing Fake News, Proactive leadership

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 57
IPRI Comments

Vaishali Handique

Northeast India: Civil Society in Unison, Media against Racism, Government’s Timely Preparedness 

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 56
IPRI Comments

Shyam Hari P

Kerala: Past Lessons and War-Footing response by the administration

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 55
IPRI Comments

Shilajit Sengupta

West Bengal: Proactive Local Leadership, Early Lockdown and Decentralised Action

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 54
IPRI Comments

P Harini Sha

Tamil Nadu’s Three Pronged Approach: Delay Virus Spread, Community Preparedness, Welfare Schemes 

read more
COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 53
IPRI Comments

Hrudaya C Kamasani

Andhra Pradesh: Early course correction, Independent leadership and Targeted Mitigation  

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 52
IPRI Comments

Sanduni Atapattu

Preventing hatred and suspicion would be a bigger struggle

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 51
IPRI Comments

Chavindi Weerawansha

A majority in the minority community suffers, for the action of a few

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 50
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

The Cardinal sermons for peace, with a message to forgive

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 49
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Who and Why of the Perpetrators

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 48
IPRI Comments

Natasha Fernando

In retrospect, where did we go wrong?

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 47
IPRI Comments

Ruwanthi Jayasekara

Build the power of Co-existence, Trust, Gender and Awareness

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 46
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

New ethnic faultlines at macro and micro levels

read more
ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 45
IPRI Comments

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera

A year has gone, but the pain has not vanished

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 44
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, it is a struggle for the women out of the patriarchal shadows

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 43
IPRI Comments

Jenice Jean Goveas

In India, the glass is half full for the women

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 42
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, there is no going back for the women

read more
Conflict Weekly 13
April 2020 | IPRI # 41
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Executing Mujib's killer in Bangladesh, Continuing conflicts in Myanmar, Questioning Government's sincerity in Naga Peace Deal, Releasing Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, and a report on damming the Mekong river by China

read more
Conflict Weekly 12
April 2020 | IPRI # 40
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Globally, Coronavirus increases Domestic Violence, deflates Global Protests, threatens Indigenous Communities and imperils the migrants. In South Asia, two reports question the Assam Foreign Tribunal and the Afghan Peace deal

read more
Afghanistan
April 2020 | IPRI # 39
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

One month after the deal with the Taliban: Problems Four, Progress None

read more
Conflict Weekly 11
April 2020 | IPRI # 38
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Releasing a former soldier convicted of a war crime in Sri Lanka, Deepening of internal conflicts in Myanmar and the Taliban’s Deal is a smokescreen in Afghanistan

read more
Report Review
March 2020 | IPRI # 37
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

Pakistan: Decline in Terrorism

read more
Conflict Weekly 10
March 2020 | IPRI # 36
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

More violence in Afghanistan, Naxal ambush in India, Federal-Provincial differences in Pakistan's Corona fight, and a new report on the impact of CoronaVirus on Conflicts

read more
Conflict Weekly 09
March 2020 | IPRI # 35
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The CoronaVirus: South Asia copes, China stabilises, Europe bleeds and the US wakes up finally

read more
Conflict Weekly 08
March 2020 | IPRI # 34
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Triumphant Women's march across Pakistan, Anti-CAA Protests in Dhaka,  Two Presidents in Afghanistan, and Turkey-Russia Ceasefire in Syria

read more
Conflict Weekly 07
March 2020 | IPRI # 33
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Aurat March in Pakistan, US-Taliban Deal in Doha, Anti-CAA protest in Meghalaya, Sri Lanka’s withdrawal from the UNCHCR Resolution, and the problems of ceasefire in Syria and Libya 

read more
Conflict Weekly 06
February 2020 | IPRI # 32
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Seven Days of Peace in Afghanistan, Violence in Delhi, Setback to Peace Talks on Libya and the Ceasefire in Gaza

read more
Conflict Weekly 05
February 2020 | IPRI # 31
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Afghan Election Results, US-Taliban Deal, Hafiz Saeed Conviction, Quetta Suicide Attack, Assam Accord, Mexico Femicide and the Climate Change impact on Bird Species

read more
Conflict Weekly 04
February 2020 | IPRI # 30
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka drops Tamil anthem, Assam looks for a new census for the indigenous Muslim population, Bangladesh faces a Rohingya boat tragedy and Israel witnesses resurgence of violence post-Trump deal

read more
Conflict Weekly 03
February 2020 | IPRI # 29
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Violence in Afghanistan, Bodo Peace Accord in Northeast India, Attack on the anti-CAA protesters in Delhi, and Trump's Middle East Peace Plan

read more
Conflict Weekly 02
January 2020 | IPRI # 28
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bangladesh and ICJ's Rohingya Verdict, Taliban and Afghan Peace, Surrenders in India's Northeast, New government in Lebanon and the Berlin summit on Libya

read more
Conflict Weekly 01
January 2020 | IPRI # 27
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Nile River Agreement, Tehran Protests, Syrians meet in Berlin, Honduran Caravans in Mexico, Taliban's ceasefire offer, Quetta Suicide attack, Supreme court verdict on J&K and the Brus Agreement in Tripura

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Myanmar
October 2019 | IPRI # 26
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Will prosecuting Suu Kyi resolve the Rohingya problem?

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Climate Change
October 2019 | IPRI # 25
IPRI Comments

Lakshman Chakravarthy N & Rashmi Ramesh

Four Actors, No Action

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From Okjökull to OK:
September 2019 | IPRI # 24
IPRI Comments

Rashmi Ramesh

Death of a Glacier in Iceland

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The Hong Kong Protests:
August 2019 | IPRI # 23
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Re-defining mass mobilization

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The Hong Kong Protest:
August 2019 | IPRI # 22
IPRI Comments

Parikshith Pradeep

Who Wants What?

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Africa
December 2020 | IPRI # 6
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ballots and Bloodshed: Trends of electoral violence in Africa

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Myanmar
March 2019 | IPRI # 5
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

The Other Conflict in Rakhine State

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West Asia
February 2019 | IPRI # 4
IPRI Comments

Seetha Lakshmi Dinesh Iyer

Yemen: Will Sa'nna fall?

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China and Islam
February 2019 | IPRI # 3
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudhan

Sinicizing the Minorities

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Terrorism
January 2019 | IPRI # 2
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Maghreb: What makes al Shahab Resilient?

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Global Politics
January 2019 | IPRI # 1
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Myanmar: Will 2019 be better for the Rohingya?

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