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IPRI # 418, 14 December 2023

Conflict Weekly
Tensions in South China Sea and Ukraine and Terror Attack in Pakistan

  IPRI Team

Annem Naga Bindhu Madhuri, Padmashree Anandhan and Rohini Reenum


China-Philippines: Rising tensions in the South China Sea
Annem Naga Bindhu Madhuri

In the news
On 8 December, the Philippines accused the Chinese coastguard of using a water cannon to obstruct three government boats conducting their regular resupply mission near Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea.

On 9 December, a Philippine boat and a Chinese ship collided near a contested reef. 

On 11 December, the Philippines condemned China's actions as a "serious escalation" and urging restraint for regional stability. It accused China of violating its sovereignty and jurisdiction, and called on China to cease illegal actions and dangerous manoeuvres against Philippine vessels. The Philippines accused China of violating its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), while China claimed the collision occurred due to the Philippine vessel's "sudden turn." The US and the UK expressed support for the Philippines and condemned China's actions.

On 11 December, the US urged China to halt its "dangerous and destabilizing" actions in the disputed South China Sea following the collision. The US called on China to abide by the 2016 international tribunal ruling, emphasising its commitment to support its ally against "dangerous and unlawful actions." 

Issues at large
First, collision and water cannon incidents. The recent tensions between the Philippines and China surged following Chinese aggression near the Second Thomas Shoal and accusations and counter-accusations that followed. In October, the Philippines had accused Chinese coast guard vessels of intentionally colliding with a Philippine ship. The ship was supplying the BRP Sierra Madre, a warship placed since 1999 that serves as an outpost for the Philippines Navy in the Second Thomas Shoal. In August, the Philippines accused China of using water cannons to obstruct another supply mission to the shoal. 

Second, territorial disputes and resource exploitation. China claims entire the South China Sea through its nine-dash line, overlapping with claims from Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. These claims are fuelled by the potential rich oil and gas reserves and strategic control of vital shipping lanes. The overlapping claims create tension and uncertainty leading to the potential for conflict over resource exploration and strategic trade routes.

Third, unresolved legal disputes and lack of cooperation. The 2016 Permanent Court of Arbitration ruling invalidated China's expansive maritime claims. However, China rejected the ruling, hindering a peaceful resolution. Efforts of multilateral cooperation through regional forums like the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have been unsuccessful in resolving the conflicting claims and promoting joint resource exploration. 

Fourth, Chinese military presence and threat to freedom of navigation. China's increasingly assertive actions in the region, including militarisation of islands and land reclamation activities, are viewed as threats to freedom of navigation by the international community. The US and its allies conduct freedom of navigation operations in the South China Sea to challenge China's excessive maritime claims and maintain international law. This military presence in the region further heightens tension and raises the risk of escalation of tensions and miscalculations.

Fifth, the role of external actors. China views the US and Australia's statements as interference in its South China Sea disputes, undermining its territorial claims and emboldening the Philippines. China perceives these pronouncements as biased fuelling regional tensions and jeopardising stability. China emphasises its commitment to bilateral solutions and rejects external meddling, urging the US and Australia to respect its sovereignty and refrain from actions that could further complicate the situation.

In perspective
First, the escalating tensions in the South China Sea are deeply concerning. The frequent collisions and aggressive manoeuvres by both sides raise serious concerns of a conflict with far-reaching consequences. The lack of a clear legal framework and effective regional cooperation mechanisms further fuels instability and hinders peaceful resolution. 

Second, the South China Sea dispute is a complex geopolitical game with high stakes. China's assertive actions are driven by a combination of resource nationalism, strategic ambitions and historical grievances. While the Philippines and other claimants have legitimate rights, their limited military capabilities make it difficult to effectively counter China. The US, caught between allies and its strategic interests, faces a delicate balancing act. 


Ukraine: Missile attacks, US divide over military aid and the Hungarian block
Padmashree Anandhan

In the news
On 12 December, Ukrainian President, Volodymyr Zelensky, held a meeting with the US President, Joe Biden. During the meeting, Zelensky pledged to keep fighting and stated that it would be “insane” to give up territory for a peace deal. The meeting was aimed at winning the USD 61 billion military deal between Ukraine and the US which has been blocked by the Republicans as they believe the US is providing over-the-limit military aid to Ukraine.

On 12 December, in a joint press conference, Biden stressed that the US would continue to supply Ukraine with critical weapons and equipment and would “not walk away.” Biden assured support despite the lack of support from the Republican party. He also announced USD 200 million of military assistance to Ukraine.

On 13 December, Kyiv’s Mayor, Vitali Klitschko, reported on a missile attack resulting in many injuries and damage to buildings. Klitschko stated: “According to medics, there are already 25 injured in Dniprovsky district of the capital, 13 were hospitalized.” In response, Kyiv’s air defence was activated. 

On 13 December, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) stated in a report that Russian forces this year have “continued to use explosive weapons with wide area effects in their attacks on densely populated urban areas of Ukraine … both in areas close to heavy fighting and in cities far from the contact line.”

On 13 December, Hungary’s Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, reiterated his objection to the EU’s agenda for Ukraine’s accession ahead of the EU summit. Orban proposed a strategic partnership instead of membership as according to him Ukraine is yet to fulfil the criteria for membership. 

Issues at large
First, increased large-scale missile and targeted attacks in Ukraine. Since November, Russia has targeted Kyiv firing cruise missiles for the first time, especially at the infrastructure facilities. The key zones that have come under constant attacks include Kyiv, Aviidivka located in the north of Donetsk Oblast and energy infrastructures in Kharkiv and Kherson. Russia has begun to use strategic aviation for attacks and it underscores the continuing threat to Ukraine. The same was confirmed by the UK Ministry of Defence on Russia stockpiling air-launched cruise missiles and heavy bomber fleet. This resonates with the 2022 attacks by Russia targeting Ukraine’s power grid and energy infrastructure.

Second, diverging views on the US support for the war in Ukraine. The Biden administration and Congress have until now directed more than USD 75 billion in assistance to Ukraine. This includes humanitarian, financial and military support. However, in 2023, the continuity of aid in the same measure seems to be uncertain due to the political deadlock over border security and the Israel-Gaza war. A recent study by the Pew Research Center survey in December 2023 found that 48 per cent of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents believe that the US aid to Ukraine was excessive, whereas only 16 per cent of Democrats and Democratic leaners viewed the same. 

Third, Poland and Hungary’s block. The eastern European countries of Poland, Slovakia and Hungary formed a block in November halting Ukraine’s grain transit. Besides, Poland and Hungary have constant barriers in granting financial aid and imposing sanctions on Russia at the EU level. The key reasons behind the block were expected to be close economic ties with Russia. However, with a change in the government in Poland under Prime Minister, Donald Tusk, the border block has been lifted. Whereas Hungary’s Prime Minister, Victor Orban, continues to block military and financial aid. According to Orban, the aid prolongs the war.

In perspective
First, a sticky road ahead for Ukraine. The Ukrainian counteroffensive began in late June, but, was unable to materialise due to a lag in weapon delivery and continued defence from Russia. This added to Ukraine’s prolonged demand for air power and advanced weapon systems from the West. The current ambiguous outset in the US between Republicans and the Democrats further adds to the concerns about the support to Ukraine. Uncertainty over strong military support and with winter ahead, the road for Ukraine will be uneasy.

Second, Biden’s dilemma. With the emergence of a debate over excess military aid sent to Ukraine, Biden’s immediate challenge will be to deal with the Republicans to pass the bill on USD 61 billion military aid. If not to eventually break the pause on sanctioning military aid to Ukraine through another package. Next, the 2024 elections and balancing the support at the domestic level will be the task with 53:45 divided support for military aid to Ukraine. 


Pakistan: Another terrorist attack
Rohini Reenum

In the news
On 12 December, the Inter-services Public Relations (ISPR), reported on six terrorists attacking a security forces’ checkpost in the Dera Ismail Khan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The militants killed 23 security personnel. The same day, Dawn reported that the attack was the deadliest this year, leaving the highest military death toll in a day. Tehreek-e-Jihad Pakistan (TJP) had claimed responsibility for the attack. 

On 12 December, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that the Foreign Secretary had called on the Afghan charge d’affaires, to deliver Pakistan’s strong demarche. Afghanistan was asked to investigate and hand over the perpetrators and the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) leadership, to make efforts to eliminate terrorist groups in Afghanistan and put an end to their use of Afghan soil for cross-border terrorism.

On 13 December, Tolo News quoted the spokesperson of the Islamic Emirate, Zabihullah Mujahid: “Every incident in Pakistan should not be linked to Afghanistan because this incident happened hundreds of kilometers away from our country. There are security forces and intelligence there (Pakistan), they should be cautious about their duties.”

Issues at large
First, the increase in terror attacks in Pakistan since the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan. Dawn in June 2023, reported that there had been a 73 per cent increase in the number of terrorist attacks in the corresponding period. There has been a further upsurge in the attacks after the TTP unilaterally ended a ceasefire in November 2022. According to a report by the Pakistan Institute for Conflict and Security Studies (PICSS), around 600 militant attacks had taken place this year until November, causing nearly 900 fatalities which is an 81 per cent escalation compared to 2022.

Second, the emergence of TJP. According to the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), the TJP announced its formation this year to enforce an Islamic system in Pakistan through armed jihad. The group is ideologically aligned with the TTP and has been described as its affiliate by several media. In its short existence, it has targeted military personnel and security establishments. It had claimed responsibility for several deadliest attacks this year including the Bolan Suicide Bombing, the Muslim Bagh attack, the Zhob garrison attack in Balochistan, the Mianwali airbase attack in Punjab and the latest Ismail Dera Khan attack in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Third, the geographical concentration of attacks. According to the third quarterly report of the Pakistan Institute for Conflict and Security Studies (PICSS), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the most affected province with 51 attacks followed by Balochistan which recorded nine attacks. Both provinces share a border with Afghanistan and are the stronghold of terror organisations operating out of Pakistan. This geographical proximity leaves the region accessible and vulnerable to cross-border terror groups including TTP. Despite repeated intelligence-based operations to flush out terrorists from these regions, the number and intensity of attacks have continued an upward trend. 

In perspective
First, the deteriorating relationship between Pakistan and Afghanistan. When the Taliban took over in Afghanistan, Pakistan expected its cooperation in its campaign against TTP. The former, however, suggested talks and ceasefires. The initial disappointment of Pakistan has slowly turned into hostility due to Afghanistan’s continued inaction. Pakistan consistently blames the Afghan Taliban for providing safe harbour to the TTP and reiterates the involvement of Afghans in suicide bombings. The forcible deportation of Afghan refugees has further increased tensions. The Taliban regime denies the allegations and asserts that Pakistan’s internal security issues are its concerns. 

Second, the geographical factor. Terror outfits operating in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan have benefitted from the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan, the withdrawal of the US and the porous borders. This has complicated Pakistan’s counter-terrorism strategy. Given the cross-border nature of its terror problem, Pakistan would require Afghanistan’s cooperation to address the issue. 

Third, the role of new actors. The emergence of new terror outfits including IS-K (regional chapter of ISIL) and TJP has further complicated the situation. These outfits have different agendas and modus operandi and are competitive for regional influence. New terror groups carry out deadly attacks to gain attention. The presence of multiple actors and threats arising thereof has impeded Pakistan’s counter-terrorism strategies.

Conflict Weekly Special
The War in Gaza: Seventh Week
Rosemary Kurian, Nuha Aamina, Rishita Verma and Gananthula Uma Maheshwari

War on the ground
On 8 December, Al-Qassam Brigades, the armed wing of Hamas, stated that one Israeli soldier who had been taken hostage was killed early on the same day in a fight between the militants and an Israeli special forces unit that was carrying out a rescue operation.

On 8 December, BBC reported that a resolution proposed by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) demanding an "immediate humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza" would be put to a vote by the UN Security Council (UNSC).

On 7 December, BBC reported that Israeli tanks were encircling the Jabalia refugee camp in northern Gaza, where there had been intense fighting. 

On 7 December, Al Jazeera reported that the Israeli army had increased the intensity of its bombardment of Gaza, targeting locations from Khan Younis in the south to Jabalia in the north.

On 6 December, Al Jazeera reported that tanks from the Israeli army advanced into the heart of Khan Younis following a night of artillery bombardment and fighting near Gaza.

On 5 December, the BBC reported that Israel claimed to have surrounded Gaza’s largest refugee camp, Jabalia. According to the Israeli military, the camp in northern Gaza was being used as a base by the Hamas.

On 4 December, the Israeli military announced that it was extending its ground operation into “all areas” of the Gaza Strip. It issued a new order on social media, asking people to leave roughly 20 areas within the Palestinian enclave.

On 3 December, BBC reported that on the third day of renewed fighting, the Israeli military was refocusing its offensive on the southern part of Gaza.

On 2 December, BBC reported that for the second day in a row, Israel was bombarding Gaza, and the military was advising residents in some areas to flee.

Regional responses
On 7 December, Egypt’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sameh Shoukry, praised the UN Secretary-General, António Guterres, for the way he was handling the war in Gaza.

On 6 December, the President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, rejected Israeli plans to establish a post-war buffer zone in Gaza. He said that even debate on the issue was “disrespectful” to his “Palestinian siblings.”

On 5 December, the Qatari-Saudi Coordination Council expressed their “deep concern about the humanitarian catastrophe” in Gaza.

On 5 December, six nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) condemned the violation of humanitarian law by Israel in Gaza. They expressed their discontent with Israeli aggression and reiterated their demand for it to end, at the 44th session of GCC.

On 4 December, the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) spokesperson stated that mortar shells were launched from Lebanon towards an Israeli military post in Shtula, injuring three IDF soldiers. 

On 3 December, an anti-tank missile was fired from Lebanon into Israel territory. It landed near Beit Hillel, injuring four soldiers. The IDF retaliated by attacking Hezbollah targets in Lebanon.   

On 1 December, Libya released four terrorists belonging to Hamas, at the request of Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Global responses
On 8 December, the US Secretary of State, Antony Blinken, urged Israel to complete its investigation of the artillery strikes that killed a journalist and injured six others in Lebanon. After human rights groups raised concern over possible “war crimes” committed by Israel, Blinken stated that it was “important and appropriate” that Israel conclude and present its findings of the investigation. 

On 8 December, Bloomberg reported that the Palestinian Authority was engaged in talks with the US, to prepare a plan to run Palestine after the war ends.

On 7 December Austria’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs claimed that there was “no indication that Austrian development projects funded by the ADA (Austrian Development Agency) were misused to fund or promote terrorism or to spread anti-Semitic content.”

On 6 December, Guterres invoked Article 99 of the UN Charter, which allowed him to bring the attention of the UN Security Council (UNSC) to any matter that “may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.”

On 6 December, the Prime Minister of Japan, Fumio Kishida, and the Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, engaged in a telephone conversation. The former urged the latter to “minimise civilian casualties” and observe international law, “especially international humanitarian law.”

On 5 December, the US House of Representatives passed a resolution equating anti-Zionism to anti-Semitism. Human rights groups in the US responded by stating that the Republican-led bill set a “dangerous” precedent, aiming to distract the public from the war in Gaza and limit free speech.

On 5 December, the US announced that it was imposing visa bans against Israeli settlers spreading violence in the West Bank despite continued warnings.

On 5 December, France imposed asset freezes on the Hamas’ chief in Gaza, Yahya Sinwar, adding him to the other individuals on its national sanctions list.

On 4 December, a Dutch court opened a case in which human rights groups accused the Netherlands of complicity in Israeli war crimes. Amnesty International and Oxfam accused the state of war crimes due to its supply of parts for F-35 fighter jets to Israel, which were used in the Gaza bombing.

On 4 December, the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs reported that a second group of Thai hostages who were released by Hamas had returned to Thailand.

On 3 December, according to Al Jazeera, the UK’s military would start sending “unarmed and unmanned” surveillance aircraft to locate hostages in Gaza. The British Ministry of Defence confirmed that it would be joining the US in its efforts to aid Israel in the war against Hamas. 

On 3 December, the Vice President of the US, Kamala Harris, called for Israel to limit its strikes in southern Gaza to protect civilian lives.

On 2 December, the Prime Minister of Belgium, Alexander De Croo, told the President of Israel, Isaac Herzog, that Belgium wanted “no more civilian killings” in Gaza. 

Curated by Dhriti Mukherjee and Shamini Velayutham, Research Assistants at NIAS.
 


Issues in Peace and Conflict This Week:
Regional Roundups

Rohini Reenum, Rishika Yadav, Anu Maria Joseph, Femy Francis, Padmashree Anandhan, Dhriti Mukherjee, Shamini Velayutham and Narmatha S

East and Southeast Asia
China: Crackdown on Myanmar-based telecommunication fraud gang
On 10 December, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security ordered all the suspects and members of the organised crime group, leading the telecommunication fraud in Myanmar, to surrender. Chinese authorities were able to capture ten major actors behind the fraud that operated from the Konkang region of Myanmar. China offered rewards worth USD 18,900 to anyone providing information. They claim that the accused openly carry arms to field their illegal activities. Chinese authorities commented that these gangs have been defrauding Chinese citizens and carrying out violent crimes including murder, assault and kidnapping.

China: Confrontation with Japan near the disputed island of Senkaku
On 10 December, Chinese coast guards accused Japanese fishing boats of intruding on the water near the contested island of Senkaku. Both countries blamed each other for violating maritime laws after both vessels engaged in a confrontation. The island is currently administered by Japan and China has repeatedly stressed its claims on the Island. Japanese coast guards issued that the Chinese vessels patrolling the contiguous region left after receiving a warning.  

China: Accused of “vanishing” 600 North Korean defectors
On 7 December, Transitional Justice Working Group (TJWG), a Seoul-based human rights group, informed that up to 600 North Koreans have allegedly “vanished” after being forcibly deported by China. TJWG issued their protest against China’s suspected role in the forced repatriation of North Korean defectors trying to flee to South Korea. The group claims that hundreds of defectors were transported in buses from the Chinese detention centre and decried it as the largest mass repatriation. TJWG stated: “Those forcibly returned face the prospect of torture, sexual and gender-based violence, imprisonment in concentration camps, forced abortions and execution as their authoritative regime brands them criminals and traitors.” In October, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs refuted the allegation and claimed that the North Koreans “illegally” entered China for economic reason and that they handled the situation by law.

China: Xi on EU-China relations
On 7 December, Chinese President Xi Jinping at the 24th EU-China Summit issued that the EU and China should not view each other as rivals and engage in confrontation owing to the differences in political systems. It was the first in-person meeting in four years where they discussed China-EU economic trade prospects and science and technological sectors cooperation. Xi stressed that they need to eliminate “all kinds of interference” and that both sides need to develop the “right perception” of each other. Xi stated: “We hope that the EU will be prudent when introducing restrictive economic and trade policies, and when using trade remedy measures to keep its trade and investment markets open.”

Taiwan: Accuses China of planned “intimidation” tactics ahead of elections
On 13 December, the Strait Times reported on the Taiwanese military accusing China of attempting to infiltrate a sensitive region near the island. They added that China has ramped up its “intimidation” tactics as Taiwan approaches its presidential elections. Taiwan alleges that China is attempting to sway the votes towards candidates who have a pro-China policy. In November, Chinese air and naval forces coordinated four aggressive incursions in the contiguous zones near the Taiwan Strait.

North Korea: Trilateral cybersecurity group targets North Korea’s threats
On 7 December, the US, South Korea and Japan convened for the cybersecurity working session to combat North Korea’s cyber threats. They discussed disrupting illicit cyber operations funding Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile programs. Emphasising the crackdown on cryptocurrency thefts and overseas Information Technology (IT) networks aiding the regime, the trio pledged cooperation to bolster cybersecurity capabilities. Meanwhile, the US and Japan bolstered extended deterrence dialogue highlighting concerns over North Korea’s missile launches.

South Korea: Conducts key military drills 
On 7 December, Seoul’s Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) announced that the Republic of Korea Armed Forces (RKAF) has initiated the Taeguk Exercise following the breakdown of the inter-Korean military accord. The computer-simulated drill is an annual exercise that focuses on diverse North Korean provocations. The move comes after Pyongyang’s unilateral withdrawal from the 2018 Comprehensive Military Agreement (CMA) in November. Seoul emphasised the need for a robust posture to counter North Korean provocations on land, sea and air. The exercise, starting on 11 December, is significant in the context of North Korea’s reinstatement of border posts and weaponry. 

South Korea: Military helicopters fly near demilitarised zone 
On 5 December, North Korea News released images of three South Korean military helicopters flying towards the Demilitarised Zone (DMZ). This move comes after the suspension of the Comprehensive Military Agreement (CMA) between South Korea and North Korea. The images reveal the choppers’ apparent movement near the Tongil Unification Observatory which highlights heightened military activity following the breakdown of the CMA. The increased presence near the border signals a potential escalation of tensions between both countries. 

North Korea: Arrest of Alejandro Cao de Benos by Spain
On 1 December, Spain’s National Police Corps (NPC) detained the founder of the pro-North Korea sympathiser group, Korea Friendship Association (KFA), Alejandro Cao de Benos. He was arrested under the charges imposed by the US over advising North Korea on cryptocurrency. He refuted the fraud charges and objected to the Federal Bureau Investigation’s (FBI) “red notice.” The KFA leader, facing earlier controversy for alleged sanctions breaches, condemned the US move as “purely political.”

South Korea: Responds to unannounced flights in air defence zone
On 14 December, the South Korean Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) announced the deployment of fighter jets in its Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ). The move was a response to unannounced incursions by four Russian and two Chinese aircraft into the ADIZ. However, the foreign aircraft, detected by the JCS, did not breach South Korea’s territorial airspace. The incident follows similar occurrences in November 2022 and June 2023 raising tensions over North Korea’s ties with Russia and China. 

Australia: Passes laws for detention of former immigration detainees
On 6 December, the High Court landmark ruling permitted the re-incarceration of ex-immigration detainees if they pose risks of serious offences post-release. The legislation enables courts to detain offenders, particularly those posing threats of violent or sexual crimes. Minister of Home Affairs, Clare O’Neil, compared the legislation to anti-terrorism measures aiming at prevention and safety of the public. 

New Zealand: Protests erupt against new government’s policies
On 5 December, thousands rallied decrying the perceived racial tilt in the new government’s policies. Te P?ti M?ori, a political party advocating for the rights of the M?ori community, called for country-wide protests, coinciding with the opening of the country’s 54th Parliament. The recently elected right-leaning coalition of the National Party, New Zealand First and ACT New Zealand vowed to review Maori language use, affirmative action and the interpretation of the country’s founding treaty in legislation. Te P?ti M?ori’s co-leader Rawiri Waititi labelled the movement an “activation.” Police reported traffic disruptions and two arrests during the demonstrations. 

South Asia
Pakistan: Blast opposite school in Peshawar
On 5 December, Al Jazeera reported on a blast that happened near a school in Peshawar. An improvised explosive device went off in the morning on 5 December injuring seven people including four children. The police could not ascertain the target of the attack and no one has claimed responsibility. Peshawar is a city in Pakistan’s north-western province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which borders Afghanistan and has witnessed a surge in violence since 2022 with majority responsibility claimed by the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP).

Pakistan: Poliovirus strains detected in six samples collected from different districts
On 14 December, Dawn reported that the Regional Reference Laboratory for Polio Eradication (RRLPE) at the National Institute of Health had found wild poliovirus type-1 (WPV1) in six samples collected from five districts of the country. The samples were collected between 13 and 20 November from the districts of Quetta, Malir (Karachi), Peshawar, Hub and Tank. The virus identified is of an imported strain. Minister of Health, Nadeem Jan, highlighted the threat of cross-border poliovirus transmission and stated that 84 out of the 90 positive samples this year detected were imported strains.

Afghanistan: India allows reopening of Afghan embassy
On 1 December, Tolo News reported that the Afghan embassy in India which was closed down previously due to lack of support from India and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan has been reopened. The embassy was reopened by the acting Consul General of Afghanistan in Mumbai, Sayed Mohammad Ibrahimkhil, and the Consul General of Afghanistan in Hyderabad, Zakia Wardak. The two officials stated that the Indian officials at the Ministry of External Affairs have asked them to take charge of the consulate services of the embassy. 

Afghanistan: UN Conference held on “Accountability for Crimes Committed in Afghanistan”
On 9 December, Tolo News reported that a UN conference for “Accountability for Crimes Committed in Afghanistan” was held on 8 December. The conference highlighted the lack of accountability for crimes against humanity committed in Afghanistan. Referring to the conference, the UN special rapporteur for Afghanistan, Richard Bennett, stated: “I really like to stress the importance of this event, as accountability is the bedrock of the human rights system and Afghanistan has been experiencing impunity for decades ... for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and violations of human rights or international humanitarian law.” Norway’s Deputy Permanent Representative to the UN, Andreas Løvold, emphasised the importance of creating a platform for Afghan women and facilitating their participation. 

Bangladesh: Opposition party protest
On 11 December, the supporters of the opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party protested on the day of International Human Rights Day ahead of the country's general election on 7 January. The protest led by former Prime Minister, Khaleda Zia, intends to boycott the election under Sheikh Hasina that Zia claims will not be free and fair. The opposition urges the polls to happen under a non-partisan caretaker government. The protest to boycott the polls was brought after the months-long rally which saw many opposition politicians jailed. During the protests, many demonstrators reportedly carried banners stating “we want the unconditional release of all prisoners.”

Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa
Iran: President Ebrahim Raisi visits Moscow
On 7 December, Al Jazeera reported that the Iranian President, Ebrahim Raisi, was hosted by the Russian President, Vladimir Putin, in Moscow. They discussed the Israel-Gaza war. While Raisi termed the situation as “genocide” and “a crime against humanity,” Putin blamed the US for its failed diplomacy in the region. Putin suggested Russia as a potential mediator to the conflict. The development comes amidst the US raising concerns about the increasing military cooperation between Iran and Russia.

Iran: Narges Mohammadi’s children accept the Nobel Peace Prize on her behalf
On 10 December, Al Jazeera reported that the children of Narges Mohammadi, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 2023, accepted the prize on her behalf. Her seat was left empty. Mohammadi fought against the compulsory wearing of the hijab and the death penalty in Iran. She has been incarcerated in the Evin Prison in the capital Tehran since 2021. Previously, she denounced the “tyrannical and anti-women religious” government in Iran stating that the government of Iran is isolating its people, adding that she is hopeful that “the Iranian people will dismantle obstruction and despotism through their persistence.”

Iran: Authorities stop Mahsa Amini’s family from travelling to collect the Sakharov Prize
On 9 December, the BBC reported that Mahsa Amini’s parents and brother were stopped from boarding their flight to Strasbourg. They were travelling to receive the EU’s Sakhroz Prize which is the EU’s top human rights prize. The EU awarded Amini and the freedom movement, “Women, Life, Freedom,” associated with her in October this year. On 12 December, the European Parliament President, Roberta Metsola, expressed disappointment in the restriction on Amini’s family to collect the prize stating: “This year's Sakharov Prize serves as a tribute to all the brave and defiant women, men and young people in Iran who, despite coming under increasing pressure, are continuing the push for change.” 

Lebanon: One soldier killed in Israeli bombardment 
On 5 December, according to Lebanon's army, a soldier was killed in an Israeli shelling on a military station along the country's southern border; the first fatality since cross-border confrontations that began in October. The army officials reported that three people were injured. They stated: “An army military position in the Odaisseh area was bombarded by the Israeli enemy, leaving one soldier martyred and three others injured.”

Lebanon: Israel extends its target in southern Lebanon
On 10 December, the Israeli forces carried out an attack on Southern Lebanon in the town of Aitaroun. According to Arab News, the attack is one of the deadliest carried out by Israeli forces. The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) building was targeted during the raid. In retaliation, Iran-backed Hezbollah targeted the Israeli army’s Yara base which is situated near the Lebanon border. The UNIFIL spokesperson, Andrea Tenenti, stated: “Any targeting of UNIFIL sites and any use of the area adjacent to our sites to launch attacks across the Blue Line is unacceptable, as attacks against civilians or UN personnel constitute violations of international law.”

Yemen: Houthi forces warn cargo ships in the Red Sea
On 13 December, Arab News quoted an unnamed Yemen’s Houthi rebel spokesperson warning several cargo ships to avoid sailing towards the Palestinian territories. In a gesture of solidarity with the Palestinians, the group threatened to block ships from any country bound for Israel until Israel ends its offensive in Gaza. The Houthis additionally warned to avoid falsifying flags in the region and requested to turn on the radios while crossing Yemen. The warning came after the Iran-backed group claimed responsibility for attacking a Norwegian commercial tanker with a missile on 12 December. According to Houthi military spokesperson, Yahya Saree, the Norwegian commercial tanker, MT Strinda, was carrying oil to Israel. However, the ship's owners maintained that it was carrying feedstock for biofuel to Italy.

UAE: An overview of the COP28 summit 
On 13 December, the Conference of the Parties 28 (COP28) was concluded in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The conference was held from 30 November to 13 December. The UN’s 28th annual climate summit discussed getting ready and limiting climate change issues. It reached an agreement, Global Stocktake. The agreement marks the first time that countries have agreed to “transition away from fossil fuels in energy systems” which will be carried out in a “just, orderly and equitable manner.” The Global Stocktake “calls on” countries to “contribute” to moving away from coal, gas and oil to “achieve net zero by 2050.”

However, countries that are more vulnerable to climate change issues, including several African countries, asserted the agreement to be more ambitious in terms of the timeline. Although COP28 President, Sultan Al Jaber, called the agreement a “paradigm shift that has the potential to redefine our economies,” the matters within the agreement are weak allowing countries to take minimal action. This narrative was mirrored by the energy justice director at the Center for Biological Diversity, Jean Su, that “cavernous loopholes threaten to undermine this breakthrough moment.”

Sudan: UN terminates mission 
On 1 December, the UN Security Council voted to end its mission, UNITMAS, in the war-torn Sudan. 14 members voted to end the mission while Russia abstained. The mission would come to an end on 3 December. The Sudan military government stated that the mission failed to reach its objectives. UN Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, DiCarlo, stated: “The Security Council just voted to close down UNITAMS, but the UN is not abandoning the Sudanese people.” UNITAMS was established in June 2020 to support the country in a 12-month transition towards a civilian government. Its mandate was extended in 2021 and 2022.

Somalia: Death toll due to floods rises to 110
On 4 August, BBC Africa quoted the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) that the death toll due to the ongoing floods in Somalia has risen to 110. According to OCHA, more than one million people have been displaced and nearly 2.4 million people are affected due to the calamity. The agency has warned of the risk of spreading several diseases including cholera in the states of Hirshabelle and Galmudug. Somalia and neighbouring countries of Kenya and Ethiopia have been experiencing heavy rains for the past week causing widespread casualties and displacement. According to the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), the floods are caused by the El Niño weather phenomenon causing extreme weather patterns.

Ethiopia: Severe drought kills 176 people
On 13 December, BBC Africa quoted Ethiopian authorities that at least 176 people were killed in the Tigray region due to drought-induced hunger. The Governor of the district of Emba Sieneti stated that nearly 45,000 people are facing severe hunger worsened by the conflict and drought. The previous week, Tigray’s interim administration announced a state of emergency after more than 200 people died from drought-related hunger. A failed four consecutive rainy season in the region has caused severe drought in the Horn of Africa region.

Uganda: 200 ADF militants killed in military operation
On 14 December, Ugandan President, Yoweri Museveni, stated that at least 200 Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) militants were killed in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo during a military operation carried out by Ugandan troops. Museveni stated that "we have been carrying out air attacks on the terrorists in Congo” adding that “200 of them were killed.” In 2021, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo began a joint military offensive against the Islamic State-linked ADF group in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. However, the group has been carrying out frequent attacks. In June, at least 42 people were killed in western Uganda in an ADF attack.

Democratic Republic of Congo: M23 rebels agree to a three-day ceasefire ahead of polls
On 13 December, the March 23 (M23), a rebel group active in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, agreed to a three-day ceasefire brokered by the US. M23 spokesperson, Lawrence Kanyuka, stated that they accepted the deal “since it is in line with the M23's existing signed ceasefire of 7 March 2023.” He added that the group would “not hesitate” to defend themselves and the civilian population that is under their control. The ceasefire comes ahead of the elections that are scheduled on 20 December. Authorities have commented that the elections cannot be held in the regions of Rutshuru and Masisi due to instability. 

Guinea-Bissau: Another coup attempt says Guinea-Bissau’s president
On 2 December, Guinea-Bissau's President, Umaro Sissoco Embalo, who arrived in the country after attending the COP28 in UAE, stated the violence in the country during the week was a coup attempt. The unrest between members of the National Guard and special forces of the Presidential Guard on Thursday night in the capital Bissau left at least two people dead. Guinea-Bissau has suffered a series of coups and attempted coups since its independence from Portugal in 1974.

Niger: ECOWAS officially suspends country’s membership
On 15 December, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) officially suspended Niger’s membership to the bloc. The move comes after the ruling military government refused to reinstate deposed President Mohamed Bazoum. On 11 December, ECOWAS stated that it would not revoke sanctions imposed on Niger after the junta rejected to free the ousted president. 

Europe 
Russia: Putin signs decree to increase Russian troops' capacity
On 1 December, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin signed a decree announcing the increase in Russia’s troops by 170,000, totalling 1,320,000. According to the Russian Ministry of Defence, the move comes after increased threats due to NATO’s expansion. The ministry stated: “The increase in the number of servicemen of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is being implemented in stages, based on citizens who express a desire to undergo military service under a contract.”

Denmark: Bill to ban Quran burnings
On 7 December, Denmark’s parliament passed a bill imposing a ban on “inappropriate treatment of religious texts.” The bill, known as the Quran Law, was passed after the continued burning of the Quran in Muslim-majority countries. Denmark and Sweden experienced a series of protests over the Quran burning leading to security concerns. Denmark’s Prime Minister, Mette Frederiksen, claimed that “criticising religion would remain legal” and the bill would only have a peripheral effect.

Ukraine: Czech Republic and Denmark announce new military aid package
On 10 December, the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic and Denmark vowed to provide 50 infantry fighting vehicles, 2500 pistols, 7000 rifles, 500 light machine guns and 500 sniper rifles. Denmark’s Minister of Defence, Troels Lund Poulsen called the package a “substantial donation” for Ukraine. It also includes anti-tank weapons and modernised armaments which are expected to be delivered in future. On 13 December, the Denmark government promised to support Ukraine with new military aid worth EUR one billion. Denmark’s Prime Minister, Mette Fredriksen, announced the package in the Nordic Summit and is expected to be presented on 14 December in the parliament for approval. Once adopted, ammunition, tanks, drones and equipment will be sent to Ukraine.

Latin America and the US
Guatemala: Arevalo faces legal challenges to election victory
On 7 December, announcements were made by prosecutors in an attempt to overturn President-elect Bernardo Arevalo’s victory. Arevalo has spoken out against corruption in the country, one of the potential reasons prosecutors declared on 8 December that his victory was “null and void.” After accusations including the narrative of the investigation result as an “attempted coup” and further attempts to strip Arevalo of his political immunity, the country’s electoral court ruled that the election results were “unchangeable.”

Guatemala: President responds to new US visa restrictions
On 12 December, a day after the US announced new visa restrictions on 300 Guatemalan citizens, Guatemala’s President, Alejandro Giammattei, rejected these “intimidating actions.” The US holds that Guatemala’s officials, including its top prosecutor, undermined democratic values during the country’s elections. These restrictions target 100 lawmakers and several private-sector individuals. Giammattei, while affirming that the transition of power in January 2024 would be carried out in an orderly manner, called out the “media and political manipulation” by members of the US government.

Mexico: Violent confrontation kills 11
On 7 December, Al Jazeera reported that at least 11 people were killed following the violence between suspected gang members and residents of a Mexican town. According to the report, the armed men were part of a drug cartel, Familia Michoacana, and had demanded local farmers pay extortion fees. The state police are working with the National Guard to gather more details on the people involved.

El Salvador: Amnesty International attributes the human rights crisis to the anti-gang crackdown
On 5 December, Amnesty International released a report titled “Behind the veil of popularity: Repression and regression of human rights in El Salvador.” The report asserted that El Salvador under President Nayib Bukele’s anti-gang crackdown is witnessing one of its worst human rights crises. The group stated that 74,000 arrested individuals under the crackdown experienced the “systematic use of torture and other mistreatment” and “deterioration in human rights” as “extremely worrisome.” Although the crackdown has lowered, following the country’s homicide rate and increased Bukele’s popularity, has left 327 people missing and 190 dead.

Mexico: Authorities detain 102 African migrants in Oaxaca
On 12 December, Mexican authorities in Oaxaca detained two buses filled with 102 migrants from African countries including Senegal, Guinea, Djibouti and the Republic of Congo. Besides, they arrested three suspected smugglers who were on the buses. Although it is unknown how the African migrants arrived in Mexico, Nicaragua’s lax visa laws have made it a common transit point. The Mexican immigration agency added that the migrants were being processed in Oaxaca in southern Mexico, however, it may face financial struggles in deporting them back to Africa.

The US: Blinken affirms US support to Guyana amid border dispute
On 6 December, the US Secretary of State, Antony Blinken, assured Guyana’s President, Irfaan Ali, of US backing on Guyana’s sovereignty over the Essequibo region, which Venezuela has threatened to annex. This follows a development on 3 December when Venezuelans voted to annex the oil-rich area of Guyana which the former holds as a natural part of its territory. Ali has emphasised that Guyana is taking the threat “very seriously” and has “initiated a number of precautionary measures to ensure the peace and stability” of the region. While expressing US support for Guyana's stance, Blinken asked Ali to deal with the issue peacefully.

The US: First charges filed under war crimes law, with relation to the Ukraine war
On 6 December, Attorney General Merrick Garland announced the arrest of four Russian soldiers for allegedly abducting and torturing a US citizen in Ukraine. This is the first time the US has filed charges under war crime laws with Garland, describing it as “an important step towards accountability for the Russian regime's illegal war in Ukraine.” However, Garland stated that the US would “not forget the atrocities in Ukraine” and that their work “is far from done.” The US citizen was allegedly abducted from his home in south-east Ukraine and was tortured and threatened. 

The US: New sanctions imposed to isolate Russia’s “wartime economy”
On 12 December, the US Departments of State and the Treasury announced new sanctions on more than 250 individuals from countries including Turkey, China and the UAE, in an attempt to isolate Russia amid the ongoing war in Ukraine. The Treasury Secretary, Janet Yellen, explained that as “Putin’s war machine cannot survive on domestic production alone,” the sanctions will “tighten the vice on willing third-country suppliers and networks providing Russia the inputs it desperately needs” to continue the war. These sanctions focus on individuals involved in weapon procurement for Russia, those who have a network with Russia’s energy sector and companies developing a natural gas processing facility in Russia.

The US: Biden warns Israel of the consequences of their “indiscriminate bombing” in Gaza
On 12 December, during a fundraiser, US President, Joe Biden, warned Israel that its “indiscriminate bombing” could lead to it losing support from the US and the EU. Biden added that the “conservative” Israeli government was making the war “very difficult” calling on the prime minister of Israel to “change this government.” On the same day, Israel’s Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, appreciated the US for blocking “international pressure to stop the war.” Although Biden underscored that Israel “can’t say no” to a Palestinian state, Netanyahu asserted that there “is disagreement about “the day after Hamas.” 

The US: Resolution on humanitarian ceasefire receives overwhelming support in UNGA
On 12 December, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) voted on a resolution calling for a humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza. 153 members voted in favour, ten voted against and 23 abstained. The non-binding resolution showcases the global political opinion that has shifted in favour of an end to the war. Saudi Arabia’s UN Ambassador, Abdulaziz Alwasil, stated that the success of the resolution “reflects the international position to call for the enforcement of this resolution.” Earlier on 8 December, the UN Security Council (UNSC) failed to pass a similar resolution calling for a ceasefire. The resolution, which was described as “balanced and neutral” by Egypt’s UN ambassador, Osama Mahmoud, was opposed by the US and Israel. Israel’s envoy, Gilad Erdan, while calling the UN a “moral stain” on humanity, stated that “the time has come to put the blame where it belongs: on the shoulders of the Hamas monsters.”

The US: Biden announces new weapons to Ukraine while Zelenskyy appeals to Republicans
On 13 December, Al Jazeera reported that as US President Joe Biden announced weaponry worth USD 200 million to Ukraine, the White House stated that the package could be “one of the last.” This is following increasing opposition from Republicans, who prefer investing more in border crossings than the Russia- Ukraine war. In response to this, Biden stated: “Putin is banking on the United States failing to deliver for Ukraine.” On 12 December, Ukrainian President, Volodymyr Zelensky, wrapped up his third diplomatic mission to Washington since the beginning of the war. During his visit, he appealed to the Republican lawmakers to approve the new USD 61.4 billion military aid plan, stating:  “Thanks to Ukraine’s success – success in defence – other European nations are safe from the Russian aggression.” 


About the authors
Rohini Reenum is a PhD Scholar at NIAS. Padmashree Anandhan is a Research Associate at NIAS. Anu Maria Joseph, Femy Francis, Rishika Yadav, Dhriti Mukherjee and Shamini Velayutham are Research Assistants at NIAS. Annem Naga Bindhu Madhuri, Narmatha S and Vetriselvi Baskaran are Postgraduate Scholars at the University of Madras. 

(The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors. They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of any institutions or organisations.)

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IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ukraine's counter-offensive, North Korea's legislation on preemptive nuclear strike, and a report on Modern Slavery

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Conflict Weekly
September 2022 | IPRI # 303
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The UN report on Xinjiang: Four Takeaways

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Conflict Weekly
September 2022 | IPRI # 302
IPRI Comments

Violence in Baghdad and Renewed fighting in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly
August 2022 | IPRI # 301
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six months of War in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
August 2022 | IPRI # 300
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Breaking from the past in Kenyan elections, a year under the Taliban in Afghanistan, and merciless heatwaves in Europe

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Conflict Weekly
August 2022 | IPRI # 299
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Precarious ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh, fresh rounds of violence in Gaza, and the new US bill supporting climate change

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Conflict Weekly Cover Story
August 2022 | IPRI # 298
IPRI Briefs

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

100 Days of People’s Protest in Sri Lanka: What’s Next?

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Conflict Weekly
August 2022 | IPRI # 297
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Zawahiri's killing, Pope's apology to the indigenous people in Canada, Iraq's political crisis, and Senegal's disputed elections

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Conflict Weekly
August 2022 | IPRI # 296
IPRI Briefs

Bibhu Prasad Routray

Myanmar Military: Annihilation as a Domination Strategy

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Conflict Weekly
July 2022 | IPRI # 295
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ukraine grain deal, the Monkeypox emergency, and the US wildfires

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Conflict Weekly Cover Story
July 2022 | IPRI # 294
IPRI Comments

Amit Gupta

Killing Roe will hurt the US Soft Power

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Conflict Weekly
July 2022 | IPRI # 293
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s gas warning to Europe, and Sudan’s intra-tribal clashes

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Conflict Weekly
July 2022 | IPRI # 292
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

President Rajapaksa’s resignation and the economic crisis in Sri Lanka, and the military's withdrawal in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
July 2022 | IPRI # 291
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Political Stalemate in Libya, and the Fall of Luhansk in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 290
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Attacks on Europe's pride marches, the Morocco-Spain migration, and the intensifying Russia-Ukraine war

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NIAS Africa Studies
June 2022 | IPRI # 289
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

DRC-Rwanda tensions: Latest developments and issues

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NIAS Africa Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 288
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s displacement crises: Three key drivers

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 287
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Heatwave in Europe, rise of the Left in Colombia and the UNHCR report on Forced Displacement

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Russia-Ukraine War
June 2022 | IPRI # 286
IPRI Comments

Sruthi Sadhasivam

Limiting Ukraine War to Ukraine: The US foreign policy strategy

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 285
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The new UK new bill on Brexit, Turkey's NATO concerns on Finland and Sweden and the SIPRI report on nuclear arsenal/weapons

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 284
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

North Korea's Missile Tests and Sanctions on Mali

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 283
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Denmark's referendum on EU defence and interstate tensions in Africa

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Conflict Weekly Cover Story
May 2022 | IPRI # 282
IPRI Briefs

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s Economic Crisis: Structural issues and impacts

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 281
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Another school shooting in the US, and EU-UK tussle over Northern Ireland protocol

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 280
IPRI Comments

Poulomi Mondal

Communal Tensions in Ethiopia: Five drivers

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 279
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Another racial attack in the US, Divide within the EU over the Russian oil ban, and violence in Israel

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Conflict Weekly Cover Story
May 2022 | IPRI # 278
IPRI Comments

S Shaji

Sudan, three years after Omar al Bashir

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 277
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Intensifying political crisis in Sri Lanka, Communal tensions in Ethiopia, and 75 days of Ukraine war

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 276
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Wagner Group: Russia's Proxies or Ghost Soldiers?

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 275
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Mali ends defence ties with France: What does this mean

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 274
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Mali-France tensions and anti-UK protests in the Virgin Islands

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 273
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

​​​​​​​UK-Rwanda asylum deal, Mexico's continuing femicides, and Afghanistan's sectarian violence 

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 272
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The battle for Donbas, Violence in Jerusalem, Riots in Sweden, Kyrgyzstan- Tajikistan border dialogue, and China’s military drills

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 271
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in Nigeria, and Russia’s new military strategy in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 270
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Political Crises in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Tunisia; Ceasefire in Yemen; and the Battle for Mariupol

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 269
IPRI Briefs

Sourina Bej

Ceasefire trails in Naga conflict: Space for peace parleys and violent politics

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 268
IPRI Briefs

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Failing Peace in Darfur: Multiple Actors, No Outcome

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 267
IPRI Briefs

Jeshil Samuel J

The 2014 Gaza Ceasefire: A Stopgap to Peace dividend

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 266
IPRI Briefs

Dincy Adlakha

The 1999 Lome Peace Agreement: Issues and failed aspirations

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 265
IPRI Briefs

Anju C Joseph

Ceasefire in Moro Conflict: No lasting solution in sight

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 264
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

30 days of War in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 263
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka’s worsening economic crisis

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 262
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The end of Denmark’s Inuit experiment

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 261
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

International Women’s Day: Gap between policies and realities on gender equality

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 260
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine Invasion: One Week Later

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 259
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine salami slicing and Canada’s freedom convoy protests

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 258
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unfreezing the Afghan assets, Tunisia’s judicial crisis and Libya’s new political deadlock

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 257
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Freedom convoy protests in Canada, and a de-escalation over Ukraine

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NIAS Africa Monitor
February 2022 | IPRI # 256
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Coup in Burkina Faso: Five things to know

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 255
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of the coup in Myanmar, Taliban meetings in Oslo, and the Global hunger report

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 254
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Burkina Faso, Continuing violence in Yemen, and an ISIS attack in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 253
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Threat of War over Ukraine, a Syrian trial in Germany, and Protests in France

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Central Asia
January 2022 | IPRI # 252
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The unrest in Kazakhstan: Look beyond the trigger

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 251
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest and crackdown in Kazakhstan, Another jail term for Aung San Suu Kyi, Two years after Qasem Soleimani, and Canada's reconciliation with the indigenous people

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 250
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflicts in 2021 : Through Regional Prisms

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 249
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shreya Upadhyay

State of Peace and Conflict in North America in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 248
IPRI Briefs

Dr Aparaajita Pandey

State of Peace and Conflict in Latin America in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 247
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shaji S

State of Peace and Conflict in Africa in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 246
IPRI Briefs

Dr Stanly Johny

State of Peace and conflict in the Middle East in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 245
IPRI Briefs

Dr Athar Zafar

State of Peace and Conflict in Central Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 244
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anshuman Behera

State of Peace and Conflict in South Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 243
IPRI Briefs

Dr Bibhu Prasad Routray

State of Peace and Conflict in Southeast Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 242
IPRI Briefs

Dr Sandip Kumar Mishra

State of Peace and Conflict in East Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 241
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anand V

State of Peace and Conflict in China in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 240
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Top 15 Conflicts in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 239
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New reports on the Omicron threat, and lifting sanctions on humanitarian aid to Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 238
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

West warns Russia over Ukrainian aggression and South Korea and North Korean agree on end-of-war declaration in principle

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NIAS Africa Monitor
December 2021 | IPRI # 237
IPRI Comments

Harshita Rathore

Famine in Ethiopia: The government's refusal to acknowledge, worsens the crisis

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 236
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict Weekly: 100th Issue

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 235
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest in the Solomon Islands, and the 12 million missing children in China

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 234
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-lockdown protests in Europe, Farmers' protests in India, and Continuing instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 223
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Europe's other migrant crisis, and Protests in Cuba and Thailand

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 222
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The migrant threat to Europe from Belarus and Ceasefire with the TTP in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 221
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of Ethiopian conflict and UK-France fishing row

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 220
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Sudan, Pressure on Myanmar's military regime, and the Migrant game by Belarus

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October 2021 | IPRI # 219
IPRI Comments

Vandana Mishra

The Texas abortion law: Five reasons why it is draconian

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 218
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

No honour in honour killing

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 217
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year after Samuel Paty's killing, Kidnapping in Haiti, and Instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 216
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

ISIS violence in Afghanistan, and Targeted killings in J&K

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 215
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Rising child abuse in Pakistan: Five reasons why

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 214
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Hazara Persecution in Pakistan: No end in sight

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 213
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Talking to the Pakistani Taliban: What did Imran say? And what does it mean? Is the rest of Pakistan ready for the same?

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 212
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Protests in Gwadar: Who and Why

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 211
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Bolsonaro protests in Brazil, UK-France fishing row, Talks with the TTP in Pakistan, and the anti-abortion law protests in the US

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 210
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Chinese White Paper on Xinjiang, and the Haitian migrant crisis in the US

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
September 2021 | IPRI # 209
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s Stolen Future:Child abductions, lost innocence, and a glaring reflection of State failure in Nigeria

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Afghanistan
September 2021 | IPRI # 208
IPRI Comments

Vineeth Daniel Vinoy

Who is who in the interim Taliban government? And, what would be the government structure?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 207
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Pride marches in Europe, Jail term for Hotel Rwanda hero, and continuing Houthi-led violence in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 206
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests in Europe and Brazil, and an impending humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan

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Latin America
September 2021 | IPRI # 205
IPRI Comments

Lokendra Sharma

Two months of Cuban protests: Is the ‘revolution’ ending?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 204
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Texas' abortion ban, Return of the Thai protests, the Taliban government, and the Guinea coup

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 203
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US exit from Afghanistan, the Houthi violence in Yemen, and Hurricane Ida in the US

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 202
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Chaotic evacuation in Kabul, Crimea Summit on seven years of Russian occupation, anti-lockdown protests in Australia, and continuing kidnappings in Africa

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 201
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Return of the Taliban and the fall of Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 200
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests return to Thailand, Taliban gains in Afghanistan, Pandemic action triggers protests in Europe, and new Climate Change report warns Code-Red

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 199
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive, New Zealand's apology over the Pacific communities, Peru's new problem, and an inter-State clash in India's Northeast

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 198
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

France's anti-extremism bill, Canada's burning churches, and Tunisia's new political crisis

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 197
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Impending famine in Tigray, should make Ethiopia everyone's problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 196
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Too late and too little is Ethiopia's international problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 195
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

Africa's Ethiopia Problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 194
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia's Tigray problem is Tigray's Ethiopia problem

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Afghanistan
July 2021 | IPRI # 193
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Five reasons why Afghanistan is closer to a civil war

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 192
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Beyond the apology to Rwanda: In Africa, is France still a 'silent colonizer'?

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 191
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Migration in Africa: Origin, Drivers and Destinations

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 190
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa:Three reasons why

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 189
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Libya: A new unity government and rekindled hope, a decade after the fall of Gaddafi

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 188
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Germany, Wildfires in Siberia and the Pegasus Spyware

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 184
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-government protests in Cuba, Pro-Zuma protests in South Africa, and remembering the Srebrenica massacre

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 183
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive in Afghanistan, Protests in Colombia, and the Heat Wave 

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 182
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Ethiopia, Berlin Conference on Libya and the World Drug Report

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 181
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US Juneteenth, UN resolution on Myanmar and Global Peace Index

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Europe
June 2021 | IPRI # 180
IPRI Comments

Chetna Vinay Bhora

Spain, Morocco and the rise of rightwing politics in Europe over immigration

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Southeast Asia
June 2021 | IPRI # 179
IPRI Comments

Anju Joseph

Timor Leste: Instability continues, despite 19 years of independence

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 178
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Three new reports on Child labour, Ethiopia and Xinjiang, Tensions in Belfast, and the Suu Kyi trial

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 177
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The UN report on Taliban-al Qaeda links, Denmark on relocating refugee camps, Burkino Faso massacre, Arctic melt, and Afghan trilateral dialogue

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Israel-Palestine Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 176
IPRI Comments

Udbhav Krishna P

Revisiting the recent violence: Three takeaways

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Gender Peace and Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 175
IPRI Comments

Vibha Venugopal

The return of Taliban will be bad news for women

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Nepal
June 2021 | IPRI # 174
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Fresh election-call mean unending cycle of instability

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 173
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing protests in Colombia, another mass abduction in Nigeria, and a controversial election in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 172
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Israel, NLD ban in Myanmar and a new Belarus crisis

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 171
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Elusive ceasefire in Israel-Palestine conflict, a migration crisis in Spain, three weeks of protests in Colombia, and the rise of Ransomware reign

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The Maldives
May 2021 | IPRI # 170
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

The bomb attack on Mohamed Nasheed. Is it political or jihadist?

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 169
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Escalating Israel-Palestine violence, an attack and a ceasefire in Afghanistan, and the fallouts of Scotland election for the UK

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Australia's indigenous communities
May 2021 | IPRI # 168
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

The systemic oppression continues despite three decades of the Royal Commission report

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Africa
May 2021 | IPRI # 167
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa. Three reasons why

read more
Afghanistan 
May 2021 | IPRI # 166
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The US decision to withdraw is a call made too early. Three reasons why

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 165
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violent protests in Colombia, US troops withdrawal in Afghanistan, and the battle for Marib in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 164
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Israel-Syria missile strikes, Clashes in Somalia and Afghan meetings in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 163
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

George Floyd murder trial, Fukushima water release controversy, anti-France protests in Pakistan, Report on the Rwandan genocide and another Loya Jirga in Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 162
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Riots in Northern Ireland, Sabotage on an Iranian nuclear facility, and a massacre in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 161
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Global gender gap report, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam talks failure, Maoist attack in India, Border tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the Security forces take control of Palma in Mozambique

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Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 160
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bloody Week in Myanmar, a Suicide attack in Indonesia and an Insurgency in Mozambique

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 159
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sanctions on China, Saudi Arabia ceasefire in Yemen, the UNHRC resolution on Sri Lanka, and a massacre in Niger

read more
Conflict Weekly #62
March 2021 | IPRI # 158
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Gender Protests in Australia, Expanding Violence in Myanmar and Anti-protests bill in the UK

read more
Conflict Weekly # 61
March 2021 | IPRI # 157
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Women’s Day, Swiss Referendum, Myanmar Violence, George Floyd Trial and Lebanon Protests

read more
Conflict Weekly #60
March 2021 | IPRI # 156
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

From Myanmar and Hong Kong in Asia to Nigeria in Africa: Seven conflicts this week

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Conflict Weekly # 59
February 2021 | IPRI # 155
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Protests in Myanmar, ‘Comfort Women’ issue in South Korea and Abductions in Nigeria

read more
Ethiopia
February 2021 | IPRI # 154
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Five fallouts of the military offensive in Tigray

read more
Afghanistan
February 2021 | IPRI # 153
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The recent surge in targeted killing vs the troops withdrawal

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 152
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

In Argentina, an extraordinarily progressive law on abortion brings the Conservatives to protest

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 151
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

In Poland, the protests against the abortion law feed into anti-government sentiments

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 150
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

In Honduras, a move towards a permanent ban on abortion laws

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 149
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

In Thailand, the new abortion law poses more questions

read more
Myanmar
February 2021 | IPRI # 148
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Civilian protests vs military: Three factors will decide the outcome in Myanmar

read more
Conflict Weekly # 58
February 2021 | IPRI # 147
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Separatism bill in France, Protests in Nepal against a gender-specific law, Surge in targetted killings in Afghanistan, and Instability continues in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly #57
February 2021 | IPRI # 146
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Coup protests in Myanmar, a new US strategy on Yemen, and the US-Iran differences on nuclear roadmap

read more
India and Sri Lanka
February 2021 | IPRI # 145
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan and Drorima Chatterjee

Five ways India can detangle the fishermen issue with Sri Lanka

read more
Conflict Weekly #56
February 2021 | IPRI # 144
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Myanmar and Protests in Russia

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Conflict Weekly #55
January 2021 | IPRI # 143
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers' protests in India, Vaccine Wars, another India-China border standoff, and Navalny's imprisonment

read more
Conflict Weekly # 54
January 2021 | IPRI # 142
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New President in the US, new Chinese Village in Arunachal Pradesh, new Israeli settlement in West Bank, and another massacre in Sudan

read more
Conflict Weekly # 53
January 2021 | IPRI # 141
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Trump impeached by the US House, Hazara miners buried in Pakistan, Farm laws stayed in India, and the Crisis escalation in CAR

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Conflict Weekly # 52
January 2021 | IPRI # 140
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

GCC lifts Qatar blockade, Iran decides to enrich uranium, Argentina legalizes abortion, French soldiers targeted in Mali, and the AFSPA extended in India's Northeast

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 139
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

The Middle East: The Abraham Accords may be the deal of the century, but comes with a heavy Palestinian cause  

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 138
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

France:  Needs to rethink  the state-religion relation in battling extremism

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 137
IPRI Comments

Teshu Singh

India and China: A tense border with compromise unlikely

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 136
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia: The conflict in Tigray and the regional fallouts

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 135
IPRI Comments

Kamna Tiwary

Europe: From anti-government protests in Belarus to ‘United for Abortion’ in Poland 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 134
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Brexit: A year of the UK-EU transition talks and finally, a Deal 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 133
IPRI Comments

Mallika Devi

Hong Kong: Slow Strangulation of Protests, Security Law and China's victory

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 132
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Thailand: For the pro-democracy protests, it is a long march ahead 

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Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 131
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Nagorno-Karabakh: Rekindled fighting, Causalities and a Ceasefire

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 130
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Hot on the Conflict Trails: Top Ten Conflicts in 2020

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 129
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Boko Haram abductions in Nigeria, Violence in Afghanistan and Farmers' protest in India

read more
Gender Peace and Conflict
December 2020 | IPRI # 128
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

From Poland to India: More attacks on abortion rights coincide with the emergence of right

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 127
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers protest in India, Radicals target idols in Bangladesh, UK reaches out to the EU and Saudi Arabia to mend ties with Qatar

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 126
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An assassination in Iran, Massacre in Nigeria and Suicide bombings in Afghanistan

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 125
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Ensure the DDC elections are inclusive, free and fair

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 124
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Electoral violence in Africa, War crimes in Afghanistan, COVID's third global wave, and Protest escalation in Thailand

read more
Domestic turmoil and South Asia
November 2020 | IPRI # 123
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s 20-Amendment is more than what was bargained for

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 122
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US troops withdrawal, Violent protests in Thailand, Refugee crisis in Ethiopia, Anti-France protests in Pakistan and the Indo-Pak tensions along the LoC

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 121
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Alliance decides to fight the DDC elections together. The ballot may be thicker than principle

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 120
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A peace agreement in Nagorno-Karabakh and a brewing civil war in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 119
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

IS terror in Vienna and Kabul, new controversy along Nepal-China border, and a boundary dispute in India’s Northeast

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 118
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

The Friday Backgrounder: Union Government amends the land laws, and the Kashmiri Opposition protests. There is politics in both

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 117
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, rising gender violence shadows COVID-19 pandemic

read more
GLOBAL PROTESTS MOVEMENT
October 2020 | IPRI # 116
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Lebanon: One year of protests; it is more setbacks and little reforms

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 115
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, pandemic has eclipsed women’s role in peacebuilding

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 114
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The new demands within the State over the Official Language Act

read more
India's Northeast
October 2020 | IPRI # 113
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

The Naga Peace talks: Caught in its own rhetoric, NSCN(IM) will lose its stakes

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 112
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The Gupkar Declaration: Vociferous Valley and an Indifferent Jammu

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
October 2020 | IPRI # 111
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Flag, Constitution, Media Freedom and Local Elections

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 110
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Solidarity in France, Emergency withdrawn in Thailand, Terror tag removed in Sudan and Hunger in South Asia

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 109
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests against sexual violence in Bangladesh, One year after Xi-Modi summit, Assassination of a Deobandi scholar in Pakistan and continuing violence in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 108
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An Afghan woman nominated for the Nobel and a Dalit woman assaulted in India. External actors get involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 107
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, women peacebuilders need more than a seat at the table

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 106
IPRI Comments

Tamanna Khosla

In India, home has been the most violent place for women

read more
GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 105
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

In India, pandemic relegates women peacebuilders to the margins

read more
Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 104
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six million COVID cases in India, Abdullah Abdullah's visit to Pakistan, China's naval exercises in four seas, and the new tensions in Nagorno Karabakh

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 103
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Al Qaeda module in India, Naga Peace talks and the Polio problem in Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 102
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Afghan summit in Doha, India-China Five Points agreement, Women protest in Pakistan, New amendment in Sri Lanka and the Bahrain-Israel rapprochement

read more
The Middle East
September 2020 | IPRI # 101
IPRI Comments

Samreen Wani

Lebanon: Can Macron's visit prevent the unravelling?

read more
Africa
September 2020 | IPRI # 100
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

In Sudan, the government signs an agreement with the rebels. However, there are serious challenges

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 99
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Targeted Violence in Pakistan, Protests in Hong Kong and the Charlie Hebdo Trial in France

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
September 2020 | IPRI # 98
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: The PDP meeting, Muharram clashes and the Kashmiri parties vis-à-vis Pakistan

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 97
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti Racist Protests in the US and the Floods in Pakistan

read more
Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 96
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali and Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Sri Lanka: Election Analysis, Expectations from the Government, Challenges Ahead, & a road map for India

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 95
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Resolution is a good beginning. So is the NIA charge sheet on the Pulwama Attack.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 94
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Proposed amendment in Sri Lanka, Verdict on the gunman in New Zealand, Peace Conference in Myanmar and the Ceasefire troubles in Libya

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 93
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Baby steps taken. Now, time to introduce a few big-ticket items

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 92
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Further trouble to the Naga Peace Talks, Taliban attack on woman negotiator, Protests in Thailand, Belarus and Bolivia, Israel-UAE Rapprochement, and the Oil Spill in Mauritius

read more
Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 91
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Integration and Assimilation are not synonymous.

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 90
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Release of Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, Troubles in Naga Peace Talks in India’s Northeast, and a deadly week in Lebanon

read more
Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 89
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: One year later, is it time to change gears?

read more
Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 88
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka Elections 2020 - A Curtain Raiser: Issues, Actors, and Challenges

read more
Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 87
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

J&K a year after 5 August 2019, Militant ambush in Manipur, Environmental protests in Northeast India, and the return of street protests in Iraq

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 86
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Omar Abdullah complains, there is no space for mainstream leaders. Should there be one?

read more
Conflict Weekly 28
July 2020 | IPRI # 85
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Bihar, Nepal and Bangladesh, Abduction of a journalist in Pakistan, Neutralization of militants in Srinagar and the UNAMA report on Afghanistan

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 84
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, 20 years later women still await the return of post war normalcy

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 83
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: After the Hurriyat, is the PDP relevant in Kashmir politics today?

read more
Conflict Weekly 27
July 2020 | IPRI # 82
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Devastating floods in Assam, and a mob Lynching of cattle smugglers along India-Bangladesh border

read more
WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 81
IPRI Comments

Mehjabin Ferdous

In Bangladesh, laws need to catch up with reality

read more
Conflict Weekly 26
July 2020 | IPRI # 80
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in India's Northeast, FGM ban in Sudan, the UN warning on Global Hunger & the Return of Global Protests

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 79
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Four years after Burhan Wani

read more
Conflict Weekly 25
July 2020 | IPRI # 78
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict and COVID in J&K, Dispute over constructing a temple in Islamabad, Return of the Indian fishermen into the Sri Lankan Waters, and the water conflict over River Nile in Africa

read more
Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 77
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

The Rise, Fall and Irrelevance of Geelani. And the Hurriyat

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Conflict Weekly 24
July 2020 | IPRI # 76
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Geelani's Exit and Continuing Violence in J&K, and the BLA attack on Pakistan stock exchange in Karachi

read more
June 2020 | IPRI # 75
IPRI Comments

Sudip Kumar Kundu

Cyclone Amphan: West Bengal, Odisha limp back to a distorted normalcy

read more
June 2020 | IPRI # 74
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

An olive branch to the PTM in Pakistan: Will the PTI heed to the Pashtun rights movement

read more
Conflict Weekly 23
June 2020 | IPRI # 73
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Baloch Disappearance issue returns, Nepal tightens Citizenship rules, and Egypt enters the conflict in Libya

read more
Conflict Weekly 22
June 2020 | IPRI # 72
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence escalates along the India-China border, Cartographic tensions over India-Nepal border, Gas explosion in Assam and Deadly attacks by the Boko Haram in Nigeria

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Conflict Weekly 21
June 2020 | IPRI # 71
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Echoes of Black Lives Matter, Violence in Kashmir Valley, Rohingyas in the deep blue sea, One year of Hong Kong protests, Conflict in Libya and the human-wildlife conflict in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly 20
June 2020 | IPRI # 70
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A week of violence in the US, Afghanistan and Africa, Urban drivers of political violence, and anti-racism protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 19
May 2020 | IPRI # 69
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal, Ceasefire in Afghanistan, Indo-Nepal border dispute in Kalapani, Honour Killing in Pakistan, New protests  in Hong Kong & the Anti-lockdown protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 18
May 2020 | IPRI # 68
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Kalapani dispute in India-Nepal border, Migrants exodus in India, Continuing violence in Balochistan and KP

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Conflict Weekly 17
May 2020 | IPRI # 67
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The return of Hong Kong Protests, a new Ceasefire in Myanmar, China-Australia Tensions on COVID & Trade, and the Al Qaeda-Islamic State clashes in Africa

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Conflict Weekly 16
May 2020 | IPRI # 66
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Binge-fighting in Kashmir Valley, SIGAR report on Afghanistan, Killing of a PTM leader in Pakistan, the US Religious Freedom watchlist, and Haftar's ceasefire call in Libya

read more
Conflict Weekly 15
April 2020 | IPRI # 65
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire and Self Rule in Yemen, Syrian war trial in Germany, SIPRI annual report on military spending, and Low civilian casualties in Afghanistan 

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 64
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

Healing needs Forgiveness, Accountability, Responsibility and Justice

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 63
IPRI Comments

La Toya Waha

Have the Islamists Won? 

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Conflict Weekly 14
April 2020 | IPRI # 62
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A new wave of arrests in Hong Kong, One year after Easter Sunday attacks in Sri Lanka, ISIS violence in Mozambique, and the coming global Food Crisis

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 61
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Jharkhand: Proactive Judiciary, Strong Civil Society Role, Rural Vigilantes

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 60
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Bihar as Late Entrant: No Prompt Action, Punitive Measures, Migrant Crisis 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 59
IPRI Comments

Anshuman Behera

Odisha’s Three Principles: Prepare for the Worst, Prepare Early, Prevent Loss of Lives

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 58
IPRI Comments

Niharika Sharma

New Delhi as Hotspot: Border Sealing, Curbing Fake News, Proactive leadership

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 57
IPRI Comments

Vaishali Handique

Northeast India: Civil Society in Unison, Media against Racism, Government’s Timely Preparedness 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 56
IPRI Comments

Shyam Hari P

Kerala: Past Lessons and War-Footing response by the administration

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 55
IPRI Comments

Shilajit Sengupta

West Bengal: Proactive Local Leadership, Early Lockdown and Decentralised Action

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 54
IPRI Comments

P Harini Sha

Tamil Nadu’s Three Pronged Approach: Delay Virus Spread, Community Preparedness, Welfare Schemes 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 53
IPRI Comments

Hrudaya C Kamasani

Andhra Pradesh: Early course correction, Independent leadership and Targeted Mitigation  

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 52
IPRI Comments

Sanduni Atapattu

Preventing hatred and suspicion would be a bigger struggle

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 51
IPRI Comments

Chavindi Weerawansha

A majority in the minority community suffers, for the action of a few

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 50
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

The Cardinal sermons for peace, with a message to forgive

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 49
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Who and Why of the Perpetrators

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 48
IPRI Comments

Natasha Fernando

In retrospect, where did we go wrong?

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 47
IPRI Comments

Ruwanthi Jayasekara

Build the power of Co-existence, Trust, Gender and Awareness

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 46
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

New ethnic faultlines at macro and micro levels

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 45
IPRI Comments

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera

A year has gone, but the pain has not vanished

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 44
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, it is a struggle for the women out of the patriarchal shadows

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 43
IPRI Comments

Jenice Jean Goveas

In India, the glass is half full for the women

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 42
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, there is no going back for the women

read more
Conflict Weekly 13
April 2020 | IPRI # 41
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Executing Mujib's killer in Bangladesh, Continuing conflicts in Myanmar, Questioning Government's sincerity in Naga Peace Deal, Releasing Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, and a report on damming the Mekong river by China

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Conflict Weekly 12
April 2020 | IPRI # 40
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Globally, Coronavirus increases Domestic Violence, deflates Global Protests, threatens Indigenous Communities and imperils the migrants. In South Asia, two reports question the Assam Foreign Tribunal and the Afghan Peace deal

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Afghanistan
April 2020 | IPRI # 39
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

One month after the deal with the Taliban: Problems Four, Progress None

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Conflict Weekly 11
April 2020 | IPRI # 38
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Releasing a former soldier convicted of a war crime in Sri Lanka, Deepening of internal conflicts in Myanmar and the Taliban’s Deal is a smokescreen in Afghanistan

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Report Review
March 2020 | IPRI # 37
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

Pakistan: Decline in Terrorism

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Conflict Weekly 10
March 2020 | IPRI # 36
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

More violence in Afghanistan, Naxal ambush in India, Federal-Provincial differences in Pakistan's Corona fight, and a new report on the impact of CoronaVirus on Conflicts

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Conflict Weekly 09
March 2020 | IPRI # 35
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The CoronaVirus: South Asia copes, China stabilises, Europe bleeds and the US wakes up finally

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Conflict Weekly 08
March 2020 | IPRI # 34
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Triumphant Women's march across Pakistan, Anti-CAA Protests in Dhaka,  Two Presidents in Afghanistan, and Turkey-Russia Ceasefire in Syria

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Conflict Weekly 07
March 2020 | IPRI # 33
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Aurat March in Pakistan, US-Taliban Deal in Doha, Anti-CAA protest in Meghalaya, Sri Lanka’s withdrawal from the UNCHCR Resolution, and the problems of ceasefire in Syria and Libya 

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Conflict Weekly 06
February 2020 | IPRI # 32
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Seven Days of Peace in Afghanistan, Violence in Delhi, Setback to Peace Talks on Libya and the Ceasefire in Gaza

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Conflict Weekly 05
February 2020 | IPRI # 31
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Afghan Election Results, US-Taliban Deal, Hafiz Saeed Conviction, Quetta Suicide Attack, Assam Accord, Mexico Femicide and the Climate Change impact on Bird Species

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Conflict Weekly 04
February 2020 | IPRI # 30
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka drops Tamil anthem, Assam looks for a new census for the indigenous Muslim population, Bangladesh faces a Rohingya boat tragedy and Israel witnesses resurgence of violence post-Trump deal

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Conflict Weekly 03
February 2020 | IPRI # 29
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Violence in Afghanistan, Bodo Peace Accord in Northeast India, Attack on the anti-CAA protesters in Delhi, and Trump's Middle East Peace Plan

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Conflict Weekly 02
January 2020 | IPRI # 28
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bangladesh and ICJ's Rohingya Verdict, Taliban and Afghan Peace, Surrenders in India's Northeast, New government in Lebanon and the Berlin summit on Libya

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Conflict Weekly 01
January 2020 | IPRI # 27
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Nile River Agreement, Tehran Protests, Syrians meet in Berlin, Honduran Caravans in Mexico, Taliban's ceasefire offer, Quetta Suicide attack, Supreme court verdict on J&K and the Brus Agreement in Tripura

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Myanmar
October 2019 | IPRI # 26
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Will prosecuting Suu Kyi resolve the Rohingya problem?

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Climate Change
October 2019 | IPRI # 25
IPRI Comments

Lakshman Chakravarthy N & Rashmi Ramesh

Four Actors, No Action

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From Okjökull to OK:
September 2019 | IPRI # 24
IPRI Comments

Rashmi Ramesh

Death of a Glacier in Iceland

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The Hong Kong Protests:
August 2019 | IPRI # 23
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Re-defining mass mobilization

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The Hong Kong Protest:
August 2019 | IPRI # 22
IPRI Comments

Parikshith Pradeep

Who Wants What?

read more
Africa
December 2020 | IPRI # 6
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ballots and Bloodshed: Trends of electoral violence in Africa

read more
Myanmar
March 2019 | IPRI # 5
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

The Other Conflict in Rakhine State

read more
West Asia
February 2019 | IPRI # 4
IPRI Comments

Seetha Lakshmi Dinesh Iyer

Yemen: Will Sa'nna fall?

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China and Islam
February 2019 | IPRI # 3
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudhan

Sinicizing the Minorities

read more
Terrorism
January 2019 | IPRI # 2
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Maghreb: What makes al Shahab Resilient?

read more
India's Northeast
July 2019 | IPRI # 1
IPRI Briefs

Titsala Sangtam

Counting Citizens: Manipur charts its own NRC

read more