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Conflict Weekly #220, 22 March 2024, Vol.5, No.12
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IPRI # 433, 22 March 2024

Conflict Weekly
The Female Genital Mutilation bill in The Gambia, Search for a Ceasefire in Gaza and Continuing Instability in Haiti

  IPRI Team

Anu Maria Joseph, Nuha Aamina and Navinan GV

The Gambia: The genital cutting and the return of the FGM debate
Anu Maria Joseph

In the news
On 18 March, a bill aiming to decriminalise Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in The Gambia proceeded to the second reading in the parliament. The lawmakers of the country voted 42 to four, advancing the bill. The bill was introduced on 5 March by an independent lawmaker, Almameh Gibba. He argued that the ban on genital cutting violated the rights to “practice their culture and religion” in the Muslim country and that “the bill seeks to uphold religious loyalty and safeguard cultural norms and values.”

On 18 March, on the day of voting, speaking to the Washington Post in front of the national assembly, Jaha Dukureh, a Gambian activist, said: “It is a rollback on women’s rights and bodily autonomy. It is a rollback in terms of telling women what to do with their own bodies. This is all this is. You are denying [us] as women who have been through FGM. You are telling us that what we are saying is a lie.” Dukureh was a victim of the cutting when she was a child and found it out on her wedding night when she was 15. Her younger sister died after the procedure.

Outside the national assembly, women and men held placards that read: “Girls need love, not knives.” Since the introduction of the bill, several popular religious leaders have increased their campaign demanding for revoking FGM. Followers of a popular Muslim cleric, Abdoulie Fatty, are rallying support by chanting: "Female circumcision is my religious belief, Gambia is not for sale."

On 6 March, the UN called The Gambia to withdraw the bill, describing it as "an abhorrent violation of human rights.” UN rights office spokesperson Seif Magango stated: We are alarmed by the tabling of a bill in The Gambian parliament seeking to repeal the Women's Amendment Act of 2015 that prohibits female genital mutilation.”

Issues at large
First, the female genital mutilation (FGM) debate in The Gambia. UNICEF defines FGM as “the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” The cutting procedure differs among societies that are engaged in FGM. At the extreme level, the clitoris, which is a sensitive part of the female reproductive system, is removed, and the genitals are cut and stitched back to control women’s sexuality. According to a UNICEF report in 2021, 76 per cent of females in the Gambia, aged between 15 and 49, have undergone genital cutting. The report represents a timeline after FGM was banned in 2015. The ban was imposed by former President Yahya Jammeh who claimed that the practice is not required in Islam. Jammeh said that after 21 years of studying the Quran, he realised that cutting is based on “no traditional facts.” He banned the practice as “it endangers the lives of women and girls.” It is carried out by traditional women practitioners supported by the mother of the victim, without sterile equipment. Often, the same equipment is used on multiple victims who are under the age of eight. FGM is an inhumane practice that leads to serious physical and psychological issues including infections, bleeding, infertility, depression, trauma and at times death. 

The ban was met with strong criticism from those who supported it. The narratives on revoking the ban began right after Jammeh was out of power. Under the ban, an individual convicted of performing the cutting faces three years in prison or a fine or both. The latest debate began in August 2023 when three women were convicted for carrying out the cutting, and an Islamic cleric paid the fine, saying that the practice was taught by the prophet Muhammad. Further, they began the campaign to reverse the ban, which led to the bill. 

Second, the excuse of history, traditions, religion and patriarchy on the FGM. Contemporary historians claim the practice began in Egypt during the reign of Pharaohs, to prevent the slaves from unwanted pregnancies. However, over time FGM spread across ethnicities and religions, especially in Africa and the Middle East. A practice that then had no religious backing and has been inherently patriarchal, a deep-rooted inequality characterised by male dominance. However, the justifications differ among societies. Some claim it is an important part of their culture. For some, it is a practice out of fear of being socially stigmatized. 

Third, the global challenge of the FGM. On 8 March, on the occasion of Women’s Day, UNICEF released a report that the number of women across the world who have undergone FGM has increased from 200 million to 230 million in eight years. The majority are from African countries, with more than 144 million cases, followed by 80 million in Asia and six million in the Middle East. FGM is practised in 30 countries across Africa and the Middle East. Only Iraq and Oman in the Middle East have provisions against cutting. It is widely carried out in Africa, although banned in 23 countries. In total, FGM is practised in 90 countries across the world, and only 51 countries have laws against FGM. 

In perspective
Undoubtedly, genital cutting is a gross form of discrimination against women and children. It is a brutal practice that compromises women’s right to freedom, health, security and physical integrity- an extreme form of discrimination against women and inhumane. The justification is not mentioned in any of the religious doctrines. 

Two-thirds of the total population in Africa and the Middle East want to end the cutting practice, says UNICEF. Women have the right to ownership of their bodies and it is cruel that there are instances of mothers imposing these beliefs on their daughters. Deep-rooted religious and patriarchal leadership, superstitions and the fear of stigmatization are not easy to cut through. Fundamental rights are compromised under religious beliefs. The genital cutting cannot be justified under any circumstances. The only answer to the FGM is to stop the practice.


The War in Gaza: The search for a ceasefire and military operations in Rafah
Nuha Aamina

In the news
On 22 March, a report in the Washington Post, referring to Secretary of State Antony Blinken's visit to Tel Aviv, said he has gone to "warn Israeli leaders against a ground invasion of the densely packed Gaza city of Rafah and to try to advance a cease-fire plan." The above report also referred to a statement by Blinken in Cairo on 21 March: "President Biden has been very clear that a major ground operation in Rafah would be a mistake and something that we can’t support."

On 21 March, during his visit to Saudi Arabia, the US Secretary of State, Antony Blinken, announced that the US has “put forward” a resolution “before the United Nations Security Council that does call for an immediate ceasefire tied to the release of hostages.”. 

On 19 March, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Volker Turk, stated: “The extent of Israel’s continued restrictions on entry of aid into Gaza, together with the manner in which it continues to conduct hostilities, may amount to the use of starvation as a method of war, which is a war crime.” 

On 16 March, ahead of his two-day trip to the Middle East, German Chancellor, Olaf Scholz, called on Israel to allow “aid to reach Gaza on a larger scale now…There is a danger that a comprehensive offensive in Rafah will result in many terrible civilian casualties, which must be strictly prohibited.”

On 15 March, Israeli Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, approved an operation in Rafah and said that the inhabitants would be evacuated. The Israeli government stated that the Israeli Defence Force was “preparing operationally and for the evacuation of the population.” Netanyahu also said: “No amount of international pressure will stop us from realising all the goals of the war: eliminating Hamas, releasing all our hostages and ensuring that Gaza will no longer pose a threat against Israel.” On the same day, Egypt’s President, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, said that Egypt was seeking to “reach a ceasefire in Gaza.” In the US, President Joseph Biden agreed with US Senator Chuck Schumer when he called for new elections in Israel and criticised Netanyahu for being an “obstacle to peace.”

Issues at large
First, the significance of Rafah. The city, geographically situated at the southern tip of Gaza, bordering Egypt, has witnessed 2.3 million civilians relocate from the north during the last five months. Rafah is seen as the last safe zone for the Palestinians in Gaza, and many fear an attack on the city will force people to flee to neighbouring countries. 

Second, Israel’s reluctance to accept a ceasefire. The US and other countries from Europe have been pressurizing Israel to reach a ceasefire agreement. Hamas presented a proposal on 14 March, to the mediators urging Israel to stop its “aggression” against Palestinian civilians, allow the passage of aid, the return of Gazans to their respective homes and withdraw Israeli forces. For Israel, Hamas’ demands are “unrealistic.” Israeli security cabinet member and Minister of National Unity, Chile Tropper, stated that if Israel had to arrive at “a deal that will return our boys and girls home, it will come at a cost, and a heavy one.” 

Third, deepening rift between Israel and the US. The US support for Israel appears to be weakening, though it has been backing Israel's efforts to eliminate Hamas. The US has also criticized Israel on the humanitarian crisis; on 14 March, Schumer stated that the current Israeli government no longer "fits the needs of Israel.” At the state level, there is support for a two-state solution in the US; Biden has also emphasized the same. However, for Netanyahu, these are unrealistic expectations. 

Fourth, the worsening humanitarian crisis. According to health authorities in Gaza, the Israeli ground and air campaign led to the deaths of more than 31,500 people,  According to a UN-backed assessment, there is likely to be a spike surge in famine, affecting 300,000 people if there is no access to aid.

In perspective
First, with Israel getting ready for military operations in Rafah, the US and other Arab states are determined to find a ceasefire agreement in place. 

Second, though there is external pressure on Israel to agree to a ceasefire, Netanyahu seems to going ahead with his plans for military operations in Rafah. For him, unless the Hamas is eliminated, Israel will not end its war in Gaza.


Haiti: Continuing political instability 
Navinan GV

In the news
On 21 March, Ernst Julme, also known as Ti Greg, the boss of the Delmas 95 gang, was assassinated in a police operation. He was a member of the gang leader Jimmy Cherizier's "Viv Ansanm" alliance. 

On 20 March, members of Petion-Ville were slaughtered and set on fire.

On 18 March, gangs looted suburban communities, killed dozens, and left their bodies in the streets and fuel stations. Subsequently, four power stations were destroyed. The spokesperson for the US Department of State, Vedant Patel, stated that the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is close to finalising the transitional council. 

On 16 March, UNICEF reported that one of its relief containers at Haiti's main port, packed with "essential items of maternal, neonatal, and child survival," had been robbed as gangs gained control of the capital. UNICEF chief said the situation was like "Mad Max."

On 12 March, Laurent Uwumuremyi, the Haiti country director for the humanitarian group Mercy Corps, said that Haitian Prime Minister Ariel Henry's resignation had “not yet generated any effect” in the capital.

Issues at large
First, the resignation of the prime minister. Ariel Henry was unable to return to Haiti from his trip to Kenya in late February to secure the support of a Kenyan-led multinational force to Haiti. During his absence, the country witnessed a surge in violence, after gangs took control of the airport. Amid threats of civil war and international pressure, on 11 March, Henry tendered his resignation following an emergency meeting of regional leaders of CARICOM. The CARICOM discussed the framework for political transition, while the US highlighted the need for swift action as the gangs wreaked chaos. 

Second, the delay in the transitional council. Internal fighting among political parties and the reluctance of some groups to participate in the transitional council are two primary reasons for the delay. The proposal to have a new leadership in Haiti was rejected by several political parties, including the Pitit Desalin led by former senator and presidential candidate Jean-Charles Moise. Asserting that no Haitian should accept any proposal from the international community, Moïse insisted on implementing the three-person presidential council, which he recently formed with former police officer Guy Phillippe and a Haitian judge. 

Third, continuing violence. Despite Henry’s resignation, the tensions have not reduced. Jimmy Cherizier, the leader of the G9 gang, stated: “We’re not going to recognise the decisions that CARICOM takes.” He said that those living in Haiti should make the decisions and rejected the transitional council. After gangs destroyed four power stations in the capital, many parts of Port-au-Prince remain without power. There is a shortage of energy, fuel, and medical supplies, affecting hospitals across the country, with six out of ten facilities unable to function. Gangs have blocked roads and ports, limiting fuel distributors' ability to carry gas to pumps around the country. 

In perspective
Haiti is expected to see more political clashes with obstacles in forming the transitional council. Though the international community wants Haiti to speed up the process, there is no consensus among the parties about who should be in the councilThe majority of the Haitians including the gangs oppose the foreign-backed transitional council. 


Issues in Peace and Conflict This Week:
Regional Roundups

Vetriselvi Baskaran, Akhil Ajith, Anu Maria Joseph, Femy Francis, Padmashree Anandhan, Dhriti Mukherjee, Shamini Velayutham, Navinan GV, and Narmatha S 

East and Southeast Asia
China: Foreign Ministry rebukers Taiwan’s participation at the Summit for Democracy
On 18 March, Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson, Lin Jian, opposed Taiwan’s participation in the third Summit of Democracy, held in the South Korean capital Seoul. Taiwanese Minister of Digital Affairs, Audrey Tang, attended the meeting and delivered a video message on the discrimination faced by the country. He added that they are willing to work with like-minded countries to ensure the safe use of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Meanwhile, Lin urged South Korea to follow the “one-China” principle and that “Taiwan is an inalienable part of Chinese territory.”

China: Brazil launches investigation against Chinese industrial product dumping
On 17 March, Brazil’s Ministry of Development, Industry, Trade and Services began an investigation into the alleged industrial product dumping by China. They plan to probe into the past six months of imports ranging from metal sheets, pre-painted steel, and tyres. Due to China’s surplus production capacity, there has been a flood of exports from China. According to Chinese customs data, exports to and imports from Brazil increased by more than a third in the first two months of 2024. Brazil’s Ministry of Industry stated that there were “sufficient elements that indicate the practice of dumping in exports from China to Brazil . . . and damage to the domestic industry resulting from such practice.” This has created a dilemma for President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who wants to further relations with China while protecting the domestic industry. Vietnam has launched a similar investigation against the dumping of wind towers and steel products.

Taiwan: China building military bases near Itu Aba, claims Foreign Minister
On 20 March, Taiwanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, Joseph Wu, stated that China is building military bases on the Subi Reef, Fiery Cross Reef, and Mischief Reef. The bases are close to Taiwan’s Itu Aba, also known as Taiping, which is Taiwan’s main territory in the Spratly Islands. Wu stated that besides the ongoing tensions between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea, tensions are increasing over Itu Aba. He stated: "China has already created very enormous South China Sea military bases on the three islands surrounding Taiping - Subi Reef, Fiery Cross Reef, and Mischief Reef - and these are all quite close to our Taiping." 

North Korea: Ballistic missile tests in the Korean peninsula
On 18 March, the South Korean Joint Chief of Staff reported that North Korea carried out ballistic missile tests towards the east of the Korean peninsula. The tests came ahead of the US Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s visit to Seoul for the Summit for Democracy. Japanese Coast Guard confirmed the launches. South Korea condemned the launches as a “clear provocation.” The US State Department stated that North Korea violated several UNSC resolutions and is posing a threat to the region. Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida responded: “North Korea's series of actions threaten the peace and security of our region and the international community, and are absolutely unacceptable.”

South Korea: Seoul hosts the Summit for Democracy
On 18 March, South Korea hosted the third Summit for Democracy in Seoul. The three-day Summit is themed ‘Democracy for Future Generations,’ focussing on digital threats to democracy, including misinformation, artificial intelligence, and deep fakes. The summit is attended by more than 100 countries. South Korean President, Yoon Suk Yeol, while addressing the gathering, stated that the countries share the duty to exchange information on artificial intelligence and technology to promote democracy. He warned that AI and other digital technology without accountability are a threat to democracy. Yoon stated: “Fake news and disinformation based on artificial intelligence and digital technology not only violates individual freedom and human rights but also threatens democratic systems.” US Secretary of State Antony Blinken stated: “As authoritarian and repressive regimes deploy technologies to undermine democracy and human rights, we need to ensure that technology sustains and supports democratic values and norms.” 

South Asia
Pakistan: Prime Minister Sharif asserts intolerance to cross-border terrorism
On 20 March, amid simmering tensions with the Taliban regime, Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif asserted that Pakistan would “not tolerate any kind of terrorism from across the border.” The statement came days after clashes and air strikes along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. He lamented: “Unfortunately, terrorism has reared its head again. The reality is that despite such great sacrifices and resources, our martyrs and troops are risking their lives to eliminate terrorism.” Sharif highlighted that while Pakistan wanted to “engage in trade and commerce and develop” its relations, “if a neighbour’s soil is used for terrorism [in Pakistan], this is intolerable.” He expressed his expectations for neighbouring countries to devise a joint plan against terrorism with “sincerity.”

Pakistan: Clashes with Afghanistan along the border
On 18 March, Pakistan launched air strikes on Afghanistan, attacking the militant outfit responsible for the 16 March North Waziristan attack. The same day, as per the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR), eight militants, including the perpetrator of the Mir Ali attack, Shera alias Janan, were killed by security forces in North Waziristan as part of an intelligence-based operation (IBO). The ISPR added that sanitization operations were “being conducted to eliminate any other terrorists found in the area as the security forces of Pakistan remain determined to wipe out the menace of terrorism from the country.” On 16 March, in a terrorist attack in Mir Ali, seven soldiers were killed. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari expressed “national commitment” to the “complete eradication of terrorism,” and vowed that the country would not hesitate to strike back if attacked at borders or inside its territory. Afghanistan’s Ministry of Defence responded that “bases of Pakistani security forces” across the border were targeted with heavy weapons, killing one army officer and injuring three soldiers. Pakistan’s airstrikes elicited a response from the US State Department’s Principal Deputy spokesperson Vedant Pate on 16 March: “We deeply regret the loss of life and injustices sustained during the attack in Pakistan, and the loss of civilian lives during the strike in Afghanistan.” The US urged the Taliban to “ensure that terrorist attacks are not launched from Afghan soil,” while calling on Pakistan “to exercise restraint and ensure civilians are not harmed in their counterterrorism efforts.”

Pakistan: Gwadar cut off amidst protests
On 18 March, Dawn reported on the road link of Gwadar and parts of the Makran division with Karachi and other areas being cut off for more than 48 hours in light of protests against the alleged enforced disappearance of two individuals. From 16 March, locals and the victims’ relatives blocked the coastal highway and the M-8 motorway, leaving hundreds of vehicles and people in buses on the highways stranded, as the protestors demanded the return of the two children. The closure severed the land communication between Gwadar, Karachi, Pasni, Ormara and Iran, leading to a shortage of essential goods in Turbat and Gwadar. Negotiations between the district administration and protestors remain fruitless. Protesters, including women and children from Gwadar and other areas, have camped at the highway with placards and banners, and have asserted that they will not move until their demands are met. They alleged that the two missing people were forcefully taken away by security forces three months ago, given assurance of their return in ten days.

Bangladesh: Worst air quality in 2023, says World Air Quality Report
On 20 March, the World Air Quality Report 2023 ranked Bangladesh number one with the highest average amount of Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 concentration of 79.9 micrograms per cubic metre. The report adds Dhaka as the second worst capital city. The level recorded is 15 times more than the WHO set limit. Minister for Environment, Saber Hossain Chowdhury, stated: “There can be no overnight fixes but now that we have identified the sources of the pollution, we have acknowledged the problem.” 

Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa
Israel: Airstrikes result in causalities
On 20 March, Al Jazeera reported that 23 people were killed in Israeli airstrikes which targeted local relief distribution workers near Gaza City’s Kuwait Roundabout. An Israeli bombing on a house in the Nuseirat refugee camp in central Gaza resulted in the death of at least 15 Palestinians. Meanwhile, Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu claimed that he made it “supremely clear” to Biden that Israel is “determined to complete the elimination” of the Hamas from Rafah. On the same day, an Israeli airstrike killed three Palestinians in the West Bank. 

Israel: Arrests in the West Bank
On 19 March, the Israeli military arrested three Palestinians in the West Bank. Separately, two men were arrested in the town of Azzun, and a man was arrested in the town of Kafr Thulth. On 18 March, the Israeli military arrested a man in the Jabal al-Sharif area of Hebron. Meanwhile, following an Israeli raid, Hamas targeted a bulldozer with an explosive device in the Balata camp, east of the city of Nablus.

Syria: Israeli strikes outside Damascus
On 19 March, according to the Syrian Ministry of Defence, Israel launched missiles at multiple targets outside the capital Damascus. The ministry stated: “Syrian air defences intercepted Israeli missiles and shot down some of them.” The ministry added that the strikes caused infrastructural damage. Meanwhile, two Syrian military sources asserted that the strikes hit the Hezbollah ammunitions near the northeast of Damascus.

Yemen: Houthi and US military attacks in the Red Sea
On 19 March, the Houthi rebels attacked a ship in the Red Sea and fired missiles against Israel defying the UNSC order to halt the attacks. Houthi military spokesperson, Yahya Sarea, stated that they fired “anti-ship” missiles at a US ship, Mado, in the Red Sea, and at several locations in the Israeli city of Eilat. On 18 March, US Central Command, CENTCOM, stated that it destroyed seven anti-ship missiles and three drones in Yemen. The US military stated: “It was determined these weapons presented an imminent threat to merchant vessels and US Navy ships in the region.” 

Nigeria: 87 people abducted in Kaduna
On 18 March, BBC Africa reported that at least 87 people were abducted in the Kajuru region of Kaduna state. The abductees included women and children. According to the residents, the gunmen were dressed like military personnel. The latest abduction adds to the series of abductions that happened the previous week. On 3 March, several Internally Displaced People (IDPs) were abducted by the bandits in the Borno state. On 7 March, bandits attacked a school and abducted 280 students in Kaduna state. On 10 March, 15 students were abducted from a boarding school in Sokoto state. The series of abductions has raised regional and international concern about the resurgence of ransom kidnappings in the country.

Niger: Suspends military cooperation with the US
On 17 March, Niger’s military spokesperson Colonel Amadou Abdramane announced the suspension of the military agreement with the US which allowed the latter to install military bases to operate in Niger. This immediate call-off came after the recent US delegates' visit. Abdramane stated: “Niger regrets the intention of the American delegation to deny the sovereign Nigerien people the right to choose their partners and types of partnerships capable of truly helping them fight against terrorism.” During the visit, the US delegates warned Niger of its increasing ties with Iran and Russia.

Africa: Indian Navy rescues cargo vessels from pirates
On 16 March, the Indian Navy rescued a Maltese-flagged bulk carrier, MV Ruen, which was hijacked three months before. The merchant vessel was hijacked in December by the Somalian pirates with 17 crew members. According to the Navy, all the 35 pirates on board were forced to surrender and raided for the possession of illegal arms, ammunition and contraband. The hijacking of MV Ruen by Somali pirates in December marked their first successful operation since 2017. 

Europe and the Americas
Russia: Amnesty International criticises measures taken to suppress Ukrainian identity
On 18 March, Amnesty International reported on Russia’s measures in Crimea to suppress Ukrainian identity. The report centred around Russia’s efforts in the last ten years to delegitimise Ukraine’s sovereignty. It criticised Russia for imposing restrictions on Ukraine’s Crimean Tatar identities in education, religion, media and judicial system. As per the report: “Changes to the curriculum and the almost total eradication of Ukrainian language tuition are designed to ensure that younger generations will lack the knowledge and awareness to challenge the Russian narrative surrounding Crimea's history.” It found that such policies were used in altering the ethnic makeup. 

Russia: Peskov hints at creating a buffer zone 
On 18 March, the Press Secretary of the President of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Peskov, hinted at having a buffer zone between Russia and Ukraine as the only solution to protect Russia from Ukrainian attacks. Peskov claimed that the increasing attacks on the border impacted public facilities and residential buildings, and demanded a buffer zone. This is the first move from Russia towards a solution to the conflict amidst increased attacks in Belgorod and other neighbouring border zones.

Venezuela: Airspace to Argentina closed in response to plane “theft”
On 12 March, the Buenos Aires Times reported on Venezuela's decision to close its airspace to Argentina. This comes after Argentina handed over a Venezuelan cargo plane to the US. Venezuelan Minister of Foreign Affairs, Yvan Gil, stated that it would continue to block the airspace until compensated for the “theft” of the Venezuelan plane. He asserted: “Venezuela exerts full sovereignty of its airspace, and repeats that no aircraft, coming from or going to Argentina, may fly over our territory, until our company is duly compensated for the damage caused.” Argentina’s Presidential spokesperson, Manuel Adorni, responded: “The Argentine Republic has started diplomatic proceedings against the Venezuelan Government, headed by dictator Maduro, after its decision to prevent the use of airspace in that country by any Argentine aircraft.” In February, the US seized a Boeing 747 cargo plane owned by a subsidiary of Venezuelan state carrier Conviasa, which was sold to Venezuela by Iran.  

Cuba: Government protests US comments on demonstrations against food shortage and power blackouts
On 18 March, the Cuban Ministry of Foreign Affairs delivered a note to the chargé d’affaires at the US diplomatic mission in Havana, Benjamin Ziff, protesting the comments by the US embassy. On 17 March, the state media El Necio reported that demonstrators took to the streets in Santiago “due to the long hours of power outages from lack of fuel and other situations arising from the current economic crisis.” An economic and energy crisis in the country has led to worsening blackouts, forcing hundreds of thousands to migrate. In response to the protest, the US embassy commented: “We urge the Cuban government to respect the human rights of the protesters and attend to the legitimate needs of the Cuban people.” Later, the Cuban Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Carlos Fernández de Cossío, condemned the “disrespectful” comments which were an “open interference in Cuba’s domestic affairs.” He added: “It was also cynical, as we said publicly, and hypocritical because it was referring to issues that are occurring in Cuba in which there’s an import and responsibility from the US government.” 

Colombia: President suspends ceasefire with an armed group 
On 17 March, Colombian President, Gustavo Petro, suspended a ceasefire with the Estado Mayor Central armed group, claiming that the group violated the agreement by attacking an indigenous community. The government announced that from 20 March, it would resume military operations against the group. The group broke away from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia after signing a peace agreement in 2016. Indigenous leaders in Cauca reported that on 16 March an armed group attacked and injured at least three individuals. Petro stated that the organisation was “violating the ceasefire agreement,” and accused it of using peace talks as a pretext to “strengthen itself militarily.”

Canada: Increase in hate crime in Toronto following 7 October attack
On 18 March, Toronto police stated that the amount of anti-Muslim and antisemitic hate crimes has increased in Toronto due to the war in Gaza. According to Police Chief Myron Demkiw, hate crimes in 2024 rose by 93 per cent compared to 2023. 69 arrests and 173 charges relating to hate crimes have been made since the war began. Of the 84 hate crimes in 2024, 56 per cent were antisemitic. Additionally, there are cases of hate crimes carried out by anti-2SLGBTQI+, anti-Black, and anti-Muslim/Arab/Palestine communities.

The US: Austin to support Ukraine through assistance and planning
On 19 March, following the Ukraine Defence Contact Group meeting, the US Secretary of Defence, Lloyd Austin, assured the continuity of aid to Ukraine and expressed the US’ determination to support it with necessary resources. In response to the delay in aid worth USD 60 billion in the Congress, he stated: “We were only able to support this much-needed package by identifying some unanticipated contract savings.” He mentioned that in total, the group had generated USD 88 billion as security assistance to Ukraine and would continue in two tracks. The first would be giving near-term support for the Ukrainian troops, and the second would be helping the Ukrainian leaders in planning their defence and deterrence. 

The US: Supreme Court blocks Texas migration bill 
On 18 March, the US Supreme Court issued an administrative stay, preventing Senate Bill 4 (SB4), a Texas immigration law that allows local and state police to arrest individuals illegally entering from Mexico. SB4 was signed into law by Texas Governor Greg Abbott in December 2023. Abbott contended that SB4 is vital to reduce migrant crossings, and accused the Biden administration of not doing enough to secure the border. Since 2021, after Biden took office, at least 6.3 million migrants have illegally crossed into the US. 


This Week in History
"This Week in History" is a new column that examines historical events, consequences, legacies and their current relevance. We hope this column will provide an opportunity to build a young team that can analyze current events from a historical perspective and vice versa.

18 March 2014: Russia annexes Crimea
Rosemary Kurian
On 18 March 2014, Russia officially annexed Crimea, marking the beginning of its current conflict with Ukraine.

At the 21st century beginning, Ukraine had witnessed the Orange Revolution supporting the anti-Russian faction within the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian Parliament. This led to the victory of the anti-Russian Viktor Yushchenko as President of Ukraine. In 2010, Viktor Yanukovych returned to power as the new President. In Crimea, the predominantly Russian population supported Yanukovych and his pro-Russian Party of Regions. His return to presidency was favourable to the Russian control in Crimea. He extended Russia’s lease on the Sevastopol Port till 2042, which allowed Russia to bring around 25,000 troops to Sevastopol, the largest city in Crimea and a key port in the Black Sea. It also served as the headquarters of Ukraine’s Navy until 2014. In early 2014, after several months of protests, Yanukovych fled from Ukraine, following which several Russian troops with no determining insignia seized several government buildings, including that of the parliament. In March 2014, Russian troops were sent to Crimea, to protect the ethnic Russian population and subsequently Russia gained de facto control over Crimea. 

On 16 March 2014, a referendum was held in Crimea on whether the population would like to accede to Russia. In what was noted as an illegal referendum with predetermined results, the results favoured Russia with an overwhelming 97 per cent, which was not recognised by Ukraine and most of the West. On 18 March, Putin signed a treaty officially incorporating Crimea into Russia, which has largely failed to gain global legitimacy and recognition. Under international law, Russia was bestowed the designation of an “occupying power” due to its annexation of Crimea. 

The Crimean annexation prompted increased separatist movements in the Donbass region, with Luhansk and Donetsk declaring allegiance to Russia, a precursor to the current war in Ukraine. To Russia, the actions in Ukraine since 2014 are the former’s efforts to prevent Ukraine’s ties with NATO or the EU, both of which Russia sees as threats to its sphere of influence. In 2018, Russia inaugurated the Kerch Strait bridge which created a direct access link from Russia to Crimea, and its 12 mile span makes it the longest bridge in Europe. While the west condemned the construction, to Russia, the bridge was a mark of power over Ukraine and increase in naval influence. Russian naval ships routinely blocked vessels’ access to Ukrainian ports through the Sea of Azov. With the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, the bridge became a key supply route for weapons to Ukrainian regions with Russian influence. Ukraine has had two attempts at destroying parts of the bridge, in which it took great pride and a massive morale boost during the war. All efforts at resolution have been halted with the question of Crimea as both parties claim it, and like Volodymyr Zelensky, the President of Ukraine, said, the war began with Crimea, and it will end with Crimea. 


17 March 1992: The end of Apartheid in South Africa
Karthik Manoharan

On 17 March 1992, in a landmark referendum, South Africa voted to end apartheid, with 68.7 per cent voting to end racism and minority white rule as a result of a long and arduous struggle against racial segregation. President FW de Klerk declared, "Today, we have closed the book on apartheid." In South Africa, apartheid laws were implemented in the 1850s, beginning with the Masters and Servants Acts of 1856. These laws were applied in four different territories and criminalized the breach of employment contracts. However, it became evident that the laws were primarily enforced against unskilled black workers, although they were technically applicable to all citizens. This discrimination continued with the Mines and Works Act of 1911, which limited the participation of black individuals in numerous skilled mining occupations.

Having gained independence in 1910, South Africa experienced the implementation of laws that aimed to subjugate the black majority and grant unprecedented power to the white minority. The passage of the Natives Land Act in 1913 further worsened the situation by restricting the acquisition and use of land by black Africans to a mere 7 per cent, confining them to reserves. In response to the Natives Land Act, the African National Congress (ANC), originally known as the South African Native National Congress, was formed to fight against discriminatory policies. However, geopolitical conditions, including the impact of world wars and economic depression, exacerbated racial segregation and strengthened apartheid.

As resistance against apartheid grew, demonstrations evolved from non-violent to armed means. The Sharpeville massacre in 1960 was a turning point, where unarmed black protesters were met with violent police retaliation, resulting in the deaths of over 60 people and injuring hundreds. The incident garnered international condemnation and heightened the willingness of anti-apartheid activists to turn to armed struggle. Nelson Mandela, among other leaders, was arrested and imprisoned during this period.

International pressure and economic sanctions eventually forced President FW de Klerk to begin dismantling apartheid. The repeal of the Population Registration Act in 1989 and the subsequent release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 signalled a gradual shift towards dismantling apartheid policies. 

In his inaugural address as President of the State on February 2, 1990, FW de Klerk implemented various reforms and initiated the path towards a democratic South Africa. To gauge white support for dismantling apartheid, a referendum was proposed. The 1992 referendum, although restricted to white South Africans, delivered a strong majority vote of 68.7 per cent in favour of abolishing apartheid, with 31.2 per cent opposed. In 1994, South Africa held its first free and fair elections, making Nelson Mandela the country's first black President. This marked a significant milestone in the nation's history, solidifying the end of apartheid and the beginning of a new era of democracy and equality.


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Femy Francis, Shamini Velayutham and Anu Maria Joseph

Hong Kong’s Article 23
On 19 March, the Hong Kong Legislative Council approved Article 23 of the Safeguarding National Security Law. The provision is an extension of the 2020 National Security Law passed by the pro-Chinese authorities. 

Article 23 gives the legislature and the police force more power and purview to subjugate dissent and quash pro-democratic movements in the country. It extends the power to legislate against opposition by increasing the ambit of what the law consists of and who can be charged. Under the law, the authorities can probe anyone who takes part in secessionism, subversion, terrorism and collusion with foreign forces and actors. Additionally, they have increased the severity of punitive actions taken by the authorities if found guilty, with most leading to increased prison time or life imprisonment. 

The Chief Executive and leader of Hong Kong John Lee supported the law and said: “Today is a historic moment for Hong Kong.” Lee added that the law is necessary to safeguard Hong Kong from “potential sabotage and undercurrents that try to create troubles,” particularly "ideas of an independent Hong Kong.” The approval garnered international decry. Amnesty International’s China director Sarah Brook said: “The passing of this law sends the clearest message yet that the Hong Kong authorities’ hunger to accommodate Beijing will outstrip any past commitments on human rights.” The US Congressional-Executive Commission expressed its concerns over the effects on US firms and businesses in Hong Kong and the curtailed freedom of Hong Kong citizens.

The Houthis
On 21 March, Bloomberg reported on a deal between the Yemeni Houthi rebels, Russia and China. The rebel group told China and Russia that their ships could freely sail in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, without being attacked. This understanding was reached between the Chinese, and Russian diplomats and the Houthi top leadership. In return, the rebel group demanded political support in the global arena, including at the UNSC. The discussion did not specify how this support would work; however, the deal aims to block provisions against the rebel group by the international actors, says Bloomberg. For Russia and China, the deal would be a reassurance from Houthis in terms of misidentification and attacks.

ISIS-K in Afghanistan
On 21 March, according to the New York Times, a suicide bombing in Kandahar city in Afghanistan killed 20 people and injured several members of the Taliban. Kandahar is home to the Taliban’s top leader, Sheikh Haibatullah Akhundzada, and the birthplace of the Taliban movement. According to Taliban officials, the militant vehicle exploded in front of the New Kabul Bank. The Taliban officials refuted the death tolls and claimed that only three people were killed. The Taliban officials at the Ministry of Interior asserted that the Islamic State-Khorasan, or ISIS-K is suspected to have carried out the attack. However, in its Telegram channel, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL (ISIS) group took ownership. The Ministry of Interior Affairs of Afghanistan stated: “The government condemns this attack and assures people that the perpetrators of this attack will be identified, arrested and handed over to judicial centres as soon as possible.”

Sudan's Hunger Crisis
On 20 March, a UNSC press release warned that the conflict between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) is causing a hunger crisis which is evolving into a famine. Director of Operations and Advocacy in the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Edem Wosornu, stated: “Sudan is one of the worst humanitarian disasters in recent memory and on course to become the world’s worst hunger crisis.” He added: “A humanitarian travesty is playing out in Sudan under a veil of international inattention and inaction.” The UN estimates that 222,000 children could die of malnutrition in the coming months. According to the World Food Programme (WFP), nearly 28 million people- 18 million in Sudan, seven million in South Sudan and three million in Chad face acute food insecurity. Besides, efforts to reach out to the population are being challenged by violence and interference from the warring parties.


About the authors
Padmashree Anandhan and Anu Maria Joseph are Research Associates at NIAS. Femy Francis, Dhriti Mukherjee, Akhil Ajith and Shamini Velayutham are Research Assistants at NIAS. Vetriselvi Baskaran, Navinan GV, and Narmatha S are Postgraduate Students at the University of Madras. Nuha Aamina is an Undergraduate Student at St Joseph’s College, Bangalore.

Karthik Manoharan is a PhD Scholar at the Department of History, Loyola College, Chennai. Rosemary Kurian is an undergraduate student at St Joseph’s University, Bangalore. She is currently part of the NIAS Area Studies team on Europe.

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President Rajapaksa’s resignation and the economic crisis in Sri Lanka, and the military's withdrawal in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
July 2022 | IPRI # 291
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Political Stalemate in Libya, and the Fall of Luhansk in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 290
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Attacks on Europe's pride marches, the Morocco-Spain migration, and the intensifying Russia-Ukraine war

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NIAS Africa Studies
June 2022 | IPRI # 289
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

DRC-Rwanda tensions: Latest developments and issues

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NIAS Africa Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 288
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s displacement crises: Three key drivers

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 287
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Heatwave in Europe, rise of the Left in Colombia and the UNHCR report on Forced Displacement

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Russia-Ukraine War
June 2022 | IPRI # 286
IPRI Comments

Sruthi Sadhasivam

Limiting Ukraine War to Ukraine: The US foreign policy strategy

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 285
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The new UK new bill on Brexit, Turkey's NATO concerns on Finland and Sweden and the SIPRI report on nuclear arsenal/weapons

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 284
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

North Korea's Missile Tests and Sanctions on Mali

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Conflict Weekly
June 2022 | IPRI # 283
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Denmark's referendum on EU defence and interstate tensions in Africa

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Conflict Weekly Cover Story
May 2022 | IPRI # 282
IPRI Briefs

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s Economic Crisis: Structural issues and impacts

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 281
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Another school shooting in the US, and EU-UK tussle over Northern Ireland protocol

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 280
IPRI Comments

Poulomi Mondal

Communal Tensions in Ethiopia: Five drivers

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 279
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Another racial attack in the US, Divide within the EU over the Russian oil ban, and violence in Israel

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Conflict Weekly Cover Story
May 2022 | IPRI # 278
IPRI Comments

S Shaji

Sudan, three years after Omar al Bashir

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 277
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Intensifying political crisis in Sri Lanka, Communal tensions in Ethiopia, and 75 days of Ukraine war

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 276
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Wagner Group: Russia's Proxies or Ghost Soldiers?

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NIAS Africa Studies
May 2022 | IPRI # 275
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Mali ends defence ties with France: What does this mean

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Conflict Weekly
May 2022 | IPRI # 274
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Mali-France tensions and anti-UK protests in the Virgin Islands

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 273
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

​​​​​​​UK-Rwanda asylum deal, Mexico's continuing femicides, and Afghanistan's sectarian violence 

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 272
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The battle for Donbas, Violence in Jerusalem, Riots in Sweden, Kyrgyzstan- Tajikistan border dialogue, and China’s military drills

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 271
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in Nigeria, and Russia’s new military strategy in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
April 2022 | IPRI # 270
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Political Crises in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Tunisia; Ceasefire in Yemen; and the Battle for Mariupol

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 269
IPRI Briefs

Sourina Bej

Ceasefire trails in Naga conflict: Space for peace parleys and violent politics

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 268
IPRI Briefs

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Failing Peace in Darfur: Multiple Actors, No Outcome

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 267
IPRI Briefs

Jeshil Samuel J

The 2014 Gaza Ceasefire: A Stopgap to Peace dividend

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 266
IPRI Briefs

Dincy Adlakha

The 1999 Lome Peace Agreement: Issues and failed aspirations

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NIAS-IPRI Brief
April 2022 | IPRI # 265
IPRI Briefs

Anju C Joseph

Ceasefire in Moro Conflict: No lasting solution in sight

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 264
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

30 days of War in Ukraine

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 263
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka’s worsening economic crisis

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 262
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The end of Denmark’s Inuit experiment

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 261
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

International Women’s Day: Gap between policies and realities on gender equality

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Conflict Weekly
March 2022 | IPRI # 260
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine Invasion: One Week Later

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 259
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Russia’s Ukraine salami slicing and Canada’s freedom convoy protests

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 258
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unfreezing the Afghan assets, Tunisia’s judicial crisis and Libya’s new political deadlock

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 257
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Freedom convoy protests in Canada, and a de-escalation over Ukraine

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NIAS Africa Monitor
February 2022 | IPRI # 256
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Coup in Burkina Faso: Five things to know

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Conflict Weekly
February 2022 | IPRI # 255
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of the coup in Myanmar, Taliban meetings in Oslo, and the Global hunger report

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 254
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Burkina Faso, Continuing violence in Yemen, and an ISIS attack in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 253
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Threat of War over Ukraine, a Syrian trial in Germany, and Protests in France

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Central Asia
January 2022 | IPRI # 252
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The unrest in Kazakhstan: Look beyond the trigger

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 251
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest and crackdown in Kazakhstan, Another jail term for Aung San Suu Kyi, Two years after Qasem Soleimani, and Canada's reconciliation with the indigenous people

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Conflict Weekly
January 2022 | IPRI # 250
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflicts in 2021 : Through Regional Prisms

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 249
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shreya Upadhyay

State of Peace and Conflict in North America in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 248
IPRI Briefs

Dr Aparaajita Pandey

State of Peace and Conflict in Latin America in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 247
IPRI Briefs

Dr Shaji S

State of Peace and Conflict in Africa in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 246
IPRI Briefs

Dr Stanly Johny

State of Peace and conflict in the Middle East in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 245
IPRI Briefs

Dr Athar Zafar

State of Peace and Conflict in Central Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 244
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anshuman Behera

State of Peace and Conflict in South Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 243
IPRI Briefs

Dr Bibhu Prasad Routray

State of Peace and Conflict in Southeast Asia in 2021

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NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 242
IPRI Briefs

Dr Sandip Kumar Mishra

State of Peace and Conflict in East Asia in 2021

read more
NIAS-IPRI Workshop
January 2022 | IPRI # 241
IPRI Briefs

Dr Anand V

State of Peace and Conflict in China in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 240
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Top 15 Conflicts in 2021

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 239
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New reports on the Omicron threat, and lifting sanctions on humanitarian aid to Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 238
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

West warns Russia over Ukrainian aggression and South Korea and North Korean agree on end-of-war declaration in principle

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NIAS Africa Monitor
December 2021 | IPRI # 237
IPRI Comments

Harshita Rathore

Famine in Ethiopia: The government's refusal to acknowledge, worsens the crisis

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 236
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict Weekly: 100th Issue

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Conflict Weekly
December 2021 | IPRI # 235
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Unrest in the Solomon Islands, and the 12 million missing children in China

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 234
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-lockdown protests in Europe, Farmers' protests in India, and Continuing instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 223
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Europe's other migrant crisis, and Protests in Cuba and Thailand

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 222
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The migrant threat to Europe from Belarus and Ceasefire with the TTP in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
November 2021 | IPRI # 221
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year of Ethiopian conflict and UK-France fishing row

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 220
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Sudan, Pressure on Myanmar's military regime, and the Migrant game by Belarus

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October 2021 | IPRI # 219
IPRI Comments

Vandana Mishra

The Texas abortion law: Five reasons why it is draconian

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 218
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

No honour in honour killing

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 217
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

One year after Samuel Paty's killing, Kidnapping in Haiti, and Instability in Sudan

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 216
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

ISIS violence in Afghanistan, and Targeted killings in J&K

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 215
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Rising child abuse in Pakistan: Five reasons why

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 214
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Hazara Persecution in Pakistan: No end in sight

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 213
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Talking to the Pakistani Taliban: What did Imran say? And what does it mean? Is the rest of Pakistan ready for the same?

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Pakistan Reader Comments
October 2021 | IPRI # 212
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

Protests in Gwadar: Who and Why

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Conflict Weekly
October 2021 | IPRI # 211
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Bolsonaro protests in Brazil, UK-France fishing row, Talks with the TTP in Pakistan, and the anti-abortion law protests in the US

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 210
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Chinese White Paper on Xinjiang, and the Haitian migrant crisis in the US

read more
NIAS-IPRI Brief
September 2021 | IPRI # 209
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Africa’s Stolen Future:Child abductions, lost innocence, and a glaring reflection of State failure in Nigeria

read more
Afghanistan
September 2021 | IPRI # 208
IPRI Comments

Vineeth Daniel Vinoy

Who is who in the interim Taliban government? And, what would be the government structure?

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 207
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Pride marches in Europe, Jail term for Hotel Rwanda hero, and continuing Houthi-led violence in Yemen

read more
Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 206
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests in Europe and Brazil, and an impending humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan

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Latin America
September 2021 | IPRI # 205
IPRI Comments

Lokendra Sharma

Two months of Cuban protests: Is the ‘revolution’ ending?

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 204
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Texas' abortion ban, Return of the Thai protests, the Taliban government, and the Guinea coup

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Conflict Weekly
September 2021 | IPRI # 203
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US exit from Afghanistan, the Houthi violence in Yemen, and Hurricane Ida in the US

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 202
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Chaotic evacuation in Kabul, Crimea Summit on seven years of Russian occupation, anti-lockdown protests in Australia, and continuing kidnappings in Africa

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 201
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Return of the Taliban and the fall of Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 200
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests return to Thailand, Taliban gains in Afghanistan, Pandemic action triggers protests in Europe, and new Climate Change report warns Code-Red

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Conflict Weekly
August 2021 | IPRI # 199
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive, New Zealand's apology over the Pacific communities, Peru's new problem, and an inter-State clash in India's Northeast

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 198
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

France's anti-extremism bill, Canada's burning churches, and Tunisia's new political crisis

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 197
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Impending famine in Tigray, should make Ethiopia everyone's problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 196
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Too late and too little is Ethiopia's international problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 195
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

Africa's Ethiopia Problem

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 194
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia's Tigray problem is Tigray's Ethiopia problem

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Afghanistan
July 2021 | IPRI # 193
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Five reasons why Afghanistan is closer to a civil war

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 192
IPRI Comments

Anu Maria Joseph

Beyond the apology to Rwanda: In Africa, is France still a 'silent colonizer'?

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 191
IPRI Comments

Mohamad Aseel Ummer

Migration in Africa: Origin, Drivers and Destinations

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 190
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa:Three reasons why

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NIAS Africa Monitor
July 2021 | IPRI # 189
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Libya: A new unity government and rekindled hope, a decade after the fall of Gaddafi

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 188
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Germany, Wildfires in Siberia and the Pegasus Spyware

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 184
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-government protests in Cuba, Pro-Zuma protests in South Africa, and remembering the Srebrenica massacre

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Conflict Weekly
July 2021 | IPRI # 183
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Taliban offensive in Afghanistan, Protests in Colombia, and the Heat Wave 

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 182
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Ethiopia, Berlin Conference on Libya and the World Drug Report

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 181
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US Juneteenth, UN resolution on Myanmar and Global Peace Index

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Europe
June 2021 | IPRI # 180
IPRI Comments

Chetna Vinay Bhora

Spain, Morocco and the rise of rightwing politics in Europe over immigration

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Southeast Asia
June 2021 | IPRI # 179
IPRI Comments

Anju Joseph

Timor Leste: Instability continues, despite 19 years of independence

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 178
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Three new reports on Child labour, Ethiopia and Xinjiang, Tensions in Belfast, and the Suu Kyi trial

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 177
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The UN report on Taliban-al Qaeda links, Denmark on relocating refugee camps, Burkino Faso massacre, Arctic melt, and Afghan trilateral dialogue

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Israel-Palestine Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 176
IPRI Comments

Udbhav Krishna P

Revisiting the recent violence: Three takeaways

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Gender Peace and Conflict
June 2021 | IPRI # 175
IPRI Comments

Vibha Venugopal

The return of Taliban will be bad news for women

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Nepal
June 2021 | IPRI # 174
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Fresh election-call mean unending cycle of instability

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Conflict Weekly
June 2021 | IPRI # 173
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing protests in Colombia, another mass abduction in Nigeria, and a controversial election in Syria

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 172
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire in Israel, NLD ban in Myanmar and a new Belarus crisis

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 171
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Elusive ceasefire in Israel-Palestine conflict, a migration crisis in Spain, three weeks of protests in Colombia, and the rise of Ransomware reign

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The Maldives
May 2021 | IPRI # 170
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

The bomb attack on Mohamed Nasheed. Is it political or jihadist?

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Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 169
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Escalating Israel-Palestine violence, an attack and a ceasefire in Afghanistan, and the fallouts of Scotland election for the UK

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Australia's indigenous communities
May 2021 | IPRI # 168
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

The systemic oppression continues despite three decades of the Royal Commission report

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Africa
May 2021 | IPRI # 167
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

15 of the 23 global hunger hotspots are in Africa. Three reasons why

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Afghanistan 
May 2021 | IPRI # 166
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The US decision to withdraw is a call made too early. Three reasons why

read more
Conflict Weekly
May 2021 | IPRI # 165
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violent protests in Colombia, US troops withdrawal in Afghanistan, and the battle for Marib in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 164
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Israel-Syria missile strikes, Clashes in Somalia and Afghan meetings in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 163
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

George Floyd murder trial, Fukushima water release controversy, anti-France protests in Pakistan, Report on the Rwandan genocide and another Loya Jirga in Afghanistan

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 162
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Riots in Northern Ireland, Sabotage on an Iranian nuclear facility, and a massacre in Ethiopia

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Conflict Weekly
April 2021 | IPRI # 161
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Global gender gap report, Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam talks failure, Maoist attack in India, Border tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the Security forces take control of Palma in Mozambique

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Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 160
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bloody Week in Myanmar, a Suicide attack in Indonesia and an Insurgency in Mozambique

read more
Conflict Weekly
March 2021 | IPRI # 159
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sanctions on China, Saudi Arabia ceasefire in Yemen, the UNHRC resolution on Sri Lanka, and a massacre in Niger

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Conflict Weekly #62
March 2021 | IPRI # 158
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Gender Protests in Australia, Expanding Violence in Myanmar and Anti-protests bill in the UK

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Conflict Weekly # 61
March 2021 | IPRI # 157
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Women’s Day, Swiss Referendum, Myanmar Violence, George Floyd Trial and Lebanon Protests

read more
Conflict Weekly #60
March 2021 | IPRI # 156
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

From Myanmar and Hong Kong in Asia to Nigeria in Africa: Seven conflicts this week

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Conflict Weekly # 59
February 2021 | IPRI # 155
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Protests in Myanmar, ‘Comfort Women’ issue in South Korea and Abductions in Nigeria

read more
Ethiopia
February 2021 | IPRI # 154
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Five fallouts of the military offensive in Tigray

read more
Afghanistan
February 2021 | IPRI # 153
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

The recent surge in targeted killing vs the troops withdrawal

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Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 152
IPRI Comments

Avishka Ashok

In Argentina, an extraordinarily progressive law on abortion brings the Conservatives to protest

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 151
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

In Poland, the protests against the abortion law feed into anti-government sentiments

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 150
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

In Honduras, a move towards a permanent ban on abortion laws

read more
Abortions, Legislations and Gender Protests
February 2021 | IPRI # 149
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

In Thailand, the new abortion law poses more questions

read more
Myanmar
February 2021 | IPRI # 148
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Civilian protests vs military: Three factors will decide the outcome in Myanmar

read more
Conflict Weekly # 58
February 2021 | IPRI # 147
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Separatism bill in France, Protests in Nepal against a gender-specific law, Surge in targetted killings in Afghanistan, and Instability continues in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly #57
February 2021 | IPRI # 146
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti-Coup protests in Myanmar, a new US strategy on Yemen, and the US-Iran differences on nuclear roadmap

read more
India and Sri Lanka
February 2021 | IPRI # 145
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan and Drorima Chatterjee

Five ways India can detangle the fishermen issue with Sri Lanka

read more
Conflict Weekly #56
February 2021 | IPRI # 144
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Coup in Myanmar and Protests in Russia

read more
Conflict Weekly #55
January 2021 | IPRI # 143
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers' protests in India, Vaccine Wars, another India-China border standoff, and Navalny's imprisonment

read more
Conflict Weekly # 54
January 2021 | IPRI # 142
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

New President in the US, new Chinese Village in Arunachal Pradesh, new Israeli settlement in West Bank, and another massacre in Sudan

read more
Conflict Weekly # 53
January 2021 | IPRI # 141
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Trump impeached by the US House, Hazara miners buried in Pakistan, Farm laws stayed in India, and the Crisis escalation in CAR

read more
Conflict Weekly # 52
January 2021 | IPRI # 140
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

GCC lifts Qatar blockade, Iran decides to enrich uranium, Argentina legalizes abortion, French soldiers targeted in Mali, and the AFSPA extended in India's Northeast

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 139
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

The Middle East: The Abraham Accords may be the deal of the century, but comes with a heavy Palestinian cause  

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 138
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

France:  Needs to rethink  the state-religion relation in battling extremism

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 137
IPRI Comments

Teshu Singh

India and China: A tense border with compromise unlikely

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 136
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ethiopia: The conflict in Tigray and the regional fallouts

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 135
IPRI Comments

Kamna Tiwary

Europe: From anti-government protests in Belarus to ‘United for Abortion’ in Poland 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 134
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Brexit: A year of the UK-EU transition talks and finally, a Deal 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 133
IPRI Comments

Mallika Devi

Hong Kong: Slow Strangulation of Protests, Security Law and China's victory

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 132
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Thailand: For the pro-democracy protests, it is a long march ahead 

read more
Conflicts around the World in 2020
December 2020 | IPRI # 131
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Nagorno-Karabakh: Rekindled fighting, Causalities and a Ceasefire

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 130
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Hot on the Conflict Trails: Top Ten Conflicts in 2020

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Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 129
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Boko Haram abductions in Nigeria, Violence in Afghanistan and Farmers' protest in India

read more
Gender Peace and Conflict
December 2020 | IPRI # 128
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

From Poland to India: More attacks on abortion rights coincide with the emergence of right

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 127
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Farmers protest in India, Radicals target idols in Bangladesh, UK reaches out to the EU and Saudi Arabia to mend ties with Qatar

read more
Conflict Weekly
December 2020 | IPRI # 126
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An assassination in Iran, Massacre in Nigeria and Suicide bombings in Afghanistan

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 125
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Ensure the DDC elections are inclusive, free and fair

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 124
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Electoral violence in Africa, War crimes in Afghanistan, COVID's third global wave, and Protest escalation in Thailand

read more
Domestic turmoil and South Asia
November 2020 | IPRI # 123
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka’s 20-Amendment is more than what was bargained for

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 122
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The US troops withdrawal, Violent protests in Thailand, Refugee crisis in Ethiopia, Anti-France protests in Pakistan and the Indo-Pak tensions along the LoC

read more
The Friday Backgrounder
November 2020 | IPRI # 121
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Alliance decides to fight the DDC elections together. The ballot may be thicker than principle

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 120
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A peace agreement in Nagorno-Karabakh and a brewing civil war in Ethiopia

read more
Conflict Weekly
November 2020 | IPRI # 119
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

IS terror in Vienna and Kabul, new controversy along Nepal-China border, and a boundary dispute in India’s Northeast

read more
J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 118
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

The Friday Backgrounder: Union Government amends the land laws, and the Kashmiri Opposition protests. There is politics in both

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 117
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, rising gender violence shadows COVID-19 pandemic

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GLOBAL PROTESTS MOVEMENT
October 2020 | IPRI # 116
IPRI Comments

Apoorva Sudhakar

Lebanon: One year of protests; it is more setbacks and little reforms

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 115
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, pandemic has eclipsed women’s role in peacebuilding

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 114
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The new demands within the State over the Official Language Act

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India's Northeast
October 2020 | IPRI # 113
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

The Naga Peace talks: Caught in its own rhetoric, NSCN(IM) will lose its stakes

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J&K
October 2020 | IPRI # 112
IPRI Comments

Akriti Sharma

The Gupkar Declaration: Vociferous Valley and an Indifferent Jammu

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The Friday Backgrounder
October 2020 | IPRI # 111
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Flag, Constitution, Media Freedom and Local Elections

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 110
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Solidarity in France, Emergency withdrawn in Thailand, Terror tag removed in Sudan and Hunger in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 109
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Protests against sexual violence in Bangladesh, One year after Xi-Modi summit, Assassination of a Deobandi scholar in Pakistan and continuing violence in Yemen

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 108
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

An Afghan woman nominated for the Nobel and a Dalit woman assaulted in India. External actors get involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 107
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, women peacebuilders need more than a seat at the table

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 106
IPRI Comments

Tamanna Khosla

In India, home has been the most violent place for women

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GENDER AND PEACEBUILDING DURING A PANDEMIC
October 2020 | IPRI # 105
IPRI Comments

Pushpika Sapna Bara

In India, pandemic relegates women peacebuilders to the margins

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Conflict Weekly
October 2020 | IPRI # 104
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Six million COVID cases in India, Abdullah Abdullah's visit to Pakistan, China's naval exercises in four seas, and the new tensions in Nagorno Karabakh

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 103
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Al Qaeda module in India, Naga Peace talks and the Polio problem in Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 102
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Afghan summit in Doha, India-China Five Points agreement, Women protest in Pakistan, New amendment in Sri Lanka and the Bahrain-Israel rapprochement

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The Middle East
September 2020 | IPRI # 101
IPRI Comments

Samreen Wani

Lebanon: Can Macron's visit prevent the unravelling?

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Africa
September 2020 | IPRI # 100
IPRI Comments

Sankalp Gurjar

In Sudan, the government signs an agreement with the rebels. However, there are serious challenges

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 99
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Targeted Violence in Pakistan, Protests in Hong Kong and the Charlie Hebdo Trial in France

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The Friday Backgrounder
September 2020 | IPRI # 98
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: The PDP meeting, Muharram clashes and the Kashmiri parties vis-à-vis Pakistan

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Conflict Weekly
September 2020 | IPRI # 97
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Anti Racist Protests in the US and the Floods in Pakistan

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 96
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali and Abigail Miriam Fernandez

Sri Lanka: Election Analysis, Expectations from the Government, Challenges Ahead, & a road map for India

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 95
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: The Gupkar Resolution is a good beginning. So is the NIA charge sheet on the Pulwama Attack.

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 94
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Proposed amendment in Sri Lanka, Verdict on the gunman in New Zealand, Peace Conference in Myanmar and the Ceasefire troubles in Libya

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The Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 93
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: Baby steps taken. Now, time to introduce a few big-ticket items

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 92
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Further trouble to the Naga Peace Talks, Taliban attack on woman negotiator, Protests in Thailand, Belarus and Bolivia, Israel-UAE Rapprochement, and the Oil Spill in Mauritius

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Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 91
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Integration and Assimilation are not synonymous.

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 90
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Release of Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, Troubles in Naga Peace Talks in India’s Northeast, and a deadly week in Lebanon

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Friday Backgrounder
August 2020 | IPRI # 89
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: One year later, is it time to change gears?

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Discussion Report
August 2020 | IPRI # 88
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

Sri Lanka Elections 2020 - A Curtain Raiser: Issues, Actors, and Challenges

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Conflict Weekly
August 2020 | IPRI # 87
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

J&K a year after 5 August 2019, Militant ambush in Manipur, Environmental protests in Northeast India, and the return of street protests in Iraq

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 86
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Omar Abdullah complains, there is no space for mainstream leaders. Should there be one?

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Conflict Weekly 28
July 2020 | IPRI # 85
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Floods in Bihar, Nepal and Bangladesh, Abduction of a journalist in Pakistan, Neutralization of militants in Srinagar and the UNAMA report on Afghanistan

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 84
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

In Sri Lanka, 20 years later women still await the return of post war normalcy

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 83
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

J&K: After the Hurriyat, is the PDP relevant in Kashmir politics today?

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Conflict Weekly 27
July 2020 | IPRI # 82
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Devastating floods in Assam, and a mob Lynching of cattle smugglers along India-Bangladesh border

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
July 2020 | IPRI # 81
IPRI Comments

Mehjabin Ferdous

In Bangladesh, laws need to catch up with reality

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Conflict Weekly 26
July 2020 | IPRI # 80
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence in India's Northeast, FGM ban in Sudan, the UN warning on Global Hunger & the Return of Global Protests

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 79
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

J&K: Four years after Burhan Wani

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Conflict Weekly 25
July 2020 | IPRI # 78
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Conflict and COVID in J&K, Dispute over constructing a temple in Islamabad, Return of the Indian fishermen into the Sri Lankan Waters, and the water conflict over River Nile in Africa

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Friday Backgrounder
July 2020 | IPRI # 77
IPRI Comments

D. Suba Chandran

The Rise, Fall and Irrelevance of Geelani. And the Hurriyat

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Conflict Weekly 24
July 2020 | IPRI # 76
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Geelani's Exit and Continuing Violence in J&K, and the BLA attack on Pakistan stock exchange in Karachi

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June 2020 | IPRI # 75
IPRI Comments

Sudip Kumar Kundu

Cyclone Amphan: West Bengal, Odisha limp back to a distorted normalcy

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June 2020 | IPRI # 74
IPRI Comments

Abigail Miriam Fernandez

An olive branch to the PTM in Pakistan: Will the PTI heed to the Pashtun rights movement

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Conflict Weekly 23
June 2020 | IPRI # 73
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Baloch Disappearance issue returns, Nepal tightens Citizenship rules, and Egypt enters the conflict in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 22
June 2020 | IPRI # 72
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Violence escalates along the India-China border, Cartographic tensions over India-Nepal border, Gas explosion in Assam and Deadly attacks by the Boko Haram in Nigeria

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Conflict Weekly 21
June 2020 | IPRI # 71
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Echoes of Black Lives Matter, Violence in Kashmir Valley, Rohingyas in the deep blue sea, One year of Hong Kong protests, Conflict in Libya and the human-wildlife conflict in South Asia

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Conflict Weekly 20
June 2020 | IPRI # 70
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A week of violence in the US, Afghanistan and Africa, Urban drivers of political violence, and anti-racism protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 19
May 2020 | IPRI # 69
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal, Ceasefire in Afghanistan, Indo-Nepal border dispute in Kalapani, Honour Killing in Pakistan, New protests  in Hong Kong & the Anti-lockdown protests in Europe

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Conflict Weekly 18
May 2020 | IPRI # 68
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Kalapani dispute in India-Nepal border, Migrants exodus in India, Continuing violence in Balochistan and KP

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Conflict Weekly 17
May 2020 | IPRI # 67
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The return of Hong Kong Protests, a new Ceasefire in Myanmar, China-Australia Tensions on COVID & Trade, and the Al Qaeda-Islamic State clashes in Africa

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Conflict Weekly 16
May 2020 | IPRI # 66
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The Binge-fighting in Kashmir Valley, SIGAR report on Afghanistan, Killing of a PTM leader in Pakistan, the US Religious Freedom watchlist, and Haftar's ceasefire call in Libya

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Conflict Weekly 15
April 2020 | IPRI # 65
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Ceasefire and Self Rule in Yemen, Syrian war trial in Germany, SIPRI annual report on military spending, and Low civilian casualties in Afghanistan 

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 64
IPRI Comments

D Suba Chandran

Healing needs Forgiveness, Accountability, Responsibility and Justice

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One year after the Easter Attacks in Sri Lanka
April 2020 | IPRI # 63
IPRI Comments

La Toya Waha

Have the Islamists Won? 

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Conflict Weekly 14
April 2020 | IPRI # 62
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

A new wave of arrests in Hong Kong, One year after Easter Sunday attacks in Sri Lanka, ISIS violence in Mozambique, and the coming global Food Crisis

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 61
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Jharkhand: Proactive Judiciary, Strong Civil Society Role, Rural Vigilantes

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 60
IPRI Comments

Alok Kumar Gupta

Bihar as Late Entrant: No Prompt Action, Punitive Measures, Migrant Crisis 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 59
IPRI Comments

Anshuman Behera

Odisha’s Three Principles: Prepare for the Worst, Prepare Early, Prevent Loss of Lives

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 58
IPRI Comments

Niharika Sharma

New Delhi as Hotspot: Border Sealing, Curbing Fake News, Proactive leadership

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 57
IPRI Comments

Vaishali Handique

Northeast India: Civil Society in Unison, Media against Racism, Government’s Timely Preparedness 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 56
IPRI Comments

Shyam Hari P

Kerala: Past Lessons and War-Footing response by the administration

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 55
IPRI Comments

Shilajit Sengupta

West Bengal: Proactive Local Leadership, Early Lockdown and Decentralised Action

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 54
IPRI Comments

P Harini Sha

Tamil Nadu’s Three Pronged Approach: Delay Virus Spread, Community Preparedness, Welfare Schemes 

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COVID-19 and the Indian States
April 2020 | IPRI # 53
IPRI Comments

Hrudaya C Kamasani

Andhra Pradesh: Early course correction, Independent leadership and Targeted Mitigation  

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 52
IPRI Comments

Sanduni Atapattu

Preventing hatred and suspicion would be a bigger struggle

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 51
IPRI Comments

Chavindi Weerawansha

A majority in the minority community suffers, for the action of a few

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 50
IPRI Comments

Chrishari de Alwis Gunasekare

The Cardinal sermons for peace, with a message to forgive

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 49
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Who and Why of the Perpetrators

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 48
IPRI Comments

Natasha Fernando

In retrospect, where did we go wrong?

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 47
IPRI Comments

Ruwanthi Jayasekara

Build the power of Co-existence, Trust, Gender and Awareness

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 46
IPRI Comments

N Manoharan

New ethnic faultlines at macro and micro levels

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ONE YEAR AFTER THE EASTER ATTACKS IN SRI LANKA
April 2020 | IPRI # 45
IPRI Comments

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera

A year has gone, but the pain has not vanished

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 44
IPRI Comments

Kabi Adhikari

In Nepal, it is a struggle for the women out of the patriarchal shadows

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 43
IPRI Comments

Jenice Jean Goveas

In India, the glass is half full for the women

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WOMEN, PEACE AND TWENTY YEARS OF UNSC 1325
April 2020 | IPRI # 42
IPRI Comments

Fatemah Ghafori

In Afghanistan, there is no going back for the women

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Conflict Weekly 13
April 2020 | IPRI # 41
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Executing Mujib's killer in Bangladesh, Continuing conflicts in Myanmar, Questioning Government's sincerity in Naga Peace Deal, Releasing Taliban prisoners in Afghanistan, and a report on damming the Mekong river by China

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Conflict Weekly 12
April 2020 | IPRI # 40
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Globally, Coronavirus increases Domestic Violence, deflates Global Protests, threatens Indigenous Communities and imperils the migrants. In South Asia, two reports question the Assam Foreign Tribunal and the Afghan Peace deal

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Afghanistan
April 2020 | IPRI # 39
IPRI Comments

Sukanya Bali

One month after the deal with the Taliban: Problems Four, Progress None

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Conflict Weekly 11
April 2020 | IPRI # 38
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Releasing a former soldier convicted of a war crime in Sri Lanka, Deepening of internal conflicts in Myanmar and the Taliban’s Deal is a smokescreen in Afghanistan

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Report Review
March 2020 | IPRI # 37
IPRI Comments

Lakshmi V Menon

Pakistan: Decline in Terrorism

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Conflict Weekly 10
March 2020 | IPRI # 36
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

More violence in Afghanistan, Naxal ambush in India, Federal-Provincial differences in Pakistan's Corona fight, and a new report on the impact of CoronaVirus on Conflicts

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Conflict Weekly 09
March 2020 | IPRI # 35
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

The CoronaVirus: South Asia copes, China stabilises, Europe bleeds and the US wakes up finally

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Conflict Weekly 08
March 2020 | IPRI # 34
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Triumphant Women's march across Pakistan, Anti-CAA Protests in Dhaka,  Two Presidents in Afghanistan, and Turkey-Russia Ceasefire in Syria

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Conflict Weekly 07
March 2020 | IPRI # 33
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Aurat March in Pakistan, US-Taliban Deal in Doha, Anti-CAA protest in Meghalaya, Sri Lanka’s withdrawal from the UNCHCR Resolution, and the problems of ceasefire in Syria and Libya 

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Conflict Weekly 06
February 2020 | IPRI # 32
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Seven Days of Peace in Afghanistan, Violence in Delhi, Setback to Peace Talks on Libya and the Ceasefire in Gaza

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Conflict Weekly 05
February 2020 | IPRI # 31
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Afghan Election Results, US-Taliban Deal, Hafiz Saeed Conviction, Quetta Suicide Attack, Assam Accord, Mexico Femicide and the Climate Change impact on Bird Species

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Conflict Weekly 04
February 2020 | IPRI # 30
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Sri Lanka drops Tamil anthem, Assam looks for a new census for the indigenous Muslim population, Bangladesh faces a Rohingya boat tragedy and Israel witnesses resurgence of violence post-Trump deal

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Conflict Weekly 03
February 2020 | IPRI # 29
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Continuing Violence in Afghanistan, Bodo Peace Accord in Northeast India, Attack on the anti-CAA protesters in Delhi, and Trump's Middle East Peace Plan

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Conflict Weekly 02
January 2020 | IPRI # 28
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Bangladesh and ICJ's Rohingya Verdict, Taliban and Afghan Peace, Surrenders in India's Northeast, New government in Lebanon and the Berlin summit on Libya

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Conflict Weekly 01
January 2020 | IPRI # 27
IPRI Comments

IPRI Team

Nile River Agreement, Tehran Protests, Syrians meet in Berlin, Honduran Caravans in Mexico, Taliban's ceasefire offer, Quetta Suicide attack, Supreme court verdict on J&K and the Brus Agreement in Tripura

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Myanmar
October 2019 | IPRI # 26
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

Will prosecuting Suu Kyi resolve the Rohingya problem?

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Climate Change
October 2019 | IPRI # 25
IPRI Comments

Lakshman Chakravarthy N & Rashmi Ramesh

Four Actors, No Action

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From Okjökull to OK:
September 2019 | IPRI # 24
IPRI Comments

Rashmi Ramesh

Death of a Glacier in Iceland

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The Hong Kong Protests:
August 2019 | IPRI # 23
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudan

Re-defining mass mobilization

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The Hong Kong Protest:
August 2019 | IPRI # 22
IPRI Comments

Parikshith Pradeep

Who Wants What?

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Africa
December 2020 | IPRI # 6
IPRI Briefs

Apoorva Sudhakar

Ballots and Bloodshed: Trends of electoral violence in Africa

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Myanmar
March 2019 | IPRI # 5
IPRI Comments

Aparupa Bhattacherjee

The Other Conflict in Rakhine State

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West Asia
February 2019 | IPRI # 4
IPRI Comments

Seetha Lakshmi Dinesh Iyer

Yemen: Will Sa'nna fall?

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China and Islam
February 2019 | IPRI # 3
IPRI Comments

Harini Madhusudhan

Sinicizing the Minorities

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Terrorism
January 2019 | IPRI # 2
IPRI Comments

Sourina Bej

Maghreb: What makes al Shahab Resilient?

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India's Northeast
July 2019 | IPRI # 1
IPRI Briefs

Titsala Sangtam

Counting Citizens: Manipur charts its own NRC

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